University of Oxford

Relevance of the Study of Interlanguage to Teaching Efl at the Tertiary Level

Introduction
A second/foreign language learner takes a linguistic journey from his/her mother tongue to the target language and naturally constructs a personal linguistic system in the interim time. This individual system is termed ‘interlanguage’ (Selinker 1969, 1972), ‘approximative system’ (Nemser 1971), ‘transitional competence’ (Corder 1967), or ‘idiosyncratic dialect’ (Corder 1973). In a narrower sense, interlanguage refers to the intermediate status of the second/foreign language learner’s system between his/her mother tongue and the target language. In a broader sense, it stands for the second/foreign language learner’s present knowledge of the language he/she is learning (Spolsky 1989). In a general sense, interlanguage is defined as ‘the interim grammars constructed by the second-language learners on their way to the target language’ (McLaughlin 1987:60).
According to Selinker (1972), the development of interlanguage depends on five central cognitive processes involved in second/foreign learning ? first language transfer, transfer of training, strategies of second/foreign language learning, strategies of second/foreign language communication, and overgeneralization of the target language linguistic material. However, Adjemian (1976) contradicts Selinker (1972), and emphasizes the natural or universal aspects of interlanguage. Adjemian (1976) focuses on the dynamic character of interlanguage systems, that is, their permeability, and maintains that interlanguage is not stable, rather it is always in a state of flux. It signifies that a second/foreign language learner’s language constantly changes and/or develops. In this connection, we could consider Ellis (1994: 352) who clearly postulates ‘these mental grammars are perceived as dynamic and subject to rapid change’. It may happen due to having the linguistic influence of the learner’s first language or due to stretching, distorting or overgeneralization of the rules of the target language by the learner when he/she attempts to generate the intended meaning; or both may occur simultaneously.
That is, interlanguage is an individual, single and unique system (Adjemian 1976) which is yet to conform to the target language norms and evidently incorporates linguistic deficiencies or errors exhibiting the learner’s current linguistic level and implying what he/she need acquire to reach a standard of the target language. Notwithstanding, there exists a substantial degree of uniformity in the characteristics of interlanguage and in the types of errors of various second/foreign language learners. For instance, Bengali speaking learners commit a common error ( and/or make a common mistake) by missing the ‘-s’ to be added to the verb used in a sentence in the simple present tense and having a third person singular subject (Maniruzzaman 2006). Andersen (1978) and Hyltenstam (1977) rightly report the important character of interlanguage that there is individual variability within uniformity.
Furthermore, Tarone (1979) explains interlanguage as a set of styles dependent on the context of use. Research reveals that the utterances of the learner are systematically variable in at least two senses. Firstly, the linguistic context may have a variable impact on the learner’s use of related phonological and syntactic structures. Secondly, the task used for the elicitation of data from the learner may have a variable effect on the learner’s production of related phonological and syntactic structures. Tarone (1979) then concludes that interlanguage speech production varies systematically with the context and elicitation task. Mitchell and Myles (1998:11) consider Towell and Hawkins (1994: 5), and lend support to Tarone (1979)-
… learner language (or interlanguage, as it is commonly called) is not only characterized by systematicity. Learner language systems are presumably – indeed, hopefully – unstable and in course of change; certainly, they are characterized also by high degrees of variability.
In sum, interlanguage or the second/foreign language learner’s interim language is permeable, variable within uniformity, systematic as well as universal in nature. It is, therefore, assumed that the study of interlanguage can help determine what the learner already knows at a certain point of time and what he/she has to be taught when and how in a particular second/foreign language teaching programme. Based on this assumption, the present study has been designed to investigate and examine the relevance of the study of interlanguage to teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to Bengali speaking learners at the tertiary level.

Method
Subjects
The study has been conducted with an experimental group and a control group, each of which consists of 21 tertiary level students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in the Language Centre at Jahangirnagar University. The subjects possess several characteristics in common ? having the same mother tongue, belonging to the same age group, studying throughout in the Bengali medium, already receiving twelve years of formal instruction in EFL at the rate of about four hours per week, and having the same objective, that is, to achieve a good command of the basic skills of the target language.
To choose the subjects in both the groups, the simple random procedure has been applied since this type of sampling is easy and inexpensive for subject selection and data analysis (Sudman 1976). In the simple random procedure, a list of the total population members is arranged in a random order, and every nth name is then picked out. Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected in the sample.

Instrumentation
The Oxford Placement Test being made up of two subtests ? Test of Grammatical Structures (Appendix-A) and Test of Reading and Listening Skills (Appendix-B) constructed by Allan (1985) coupled with a Free Composition Test (Appendix-C) and a Speaking Test (Appendix-D) designed by the present researcher has been employed to measure the pre-programme as well as post-programme linguistic level of both the experimental group and the control group. All the tests have also been used to analyze the interlanguage of the subjects of the experimental group.
Oxford Placement Test: The Oxford Placement Test is one of the most widely used measures of ESL/EFL proficiency in the UK. It has been reliably exploited for ascertaining English proficiency of the students entering undergraduate and postgraduate studies in British universities. Since the subjects of the present study are of the undergraduate level, the researcher deems that the Oxford Placement Test effectively and efficiently measures the subjects’ proficiency in writing, reading and listening. This test is constituted of two subtests:
a. Test of Grammatical Structures: This is a written multiple-choice test of grammatical structures of English covered by the vast majority of course books, whether functional or structural, in the range from elementary to advanced. The test has one hundred multiple-choice items, each carrying one mark. A time limit of one hour thirty minutes is set for the test.
b. Test of Reading and Listening Skills: This is a test of reading and listening skills consisting of one hundred multiple-choice items, each of one mark. In the test, the testee’s performance is dependent on the knowledge of the sound and writing systems of the English language and upon the ability to make use of this knowledge. The recorded material controls the time for the test.
Free Composition Test: This test is designed to assess the subjects’ linguistic competence in organizing and presenting relevant ideas in writing. Controlled compositions are error-provoking while free compositions are error-avoiding. In this investigation, spontaneous prediction procedure has been followed, and the subjects are asked to write a free composition on any one of the topics –‘Your Future Plan’, ‘Importance of English’ and ‘Family Life’. A time limit of one hour is set for the test, and it is marked in 20.
Speaking Test: This test is made up of the items supposed to determine the subjects’ ability to express different attitudes, feelings and emotions as well as their competence in communicating in real life situations. The subjects are required to answer the test in 45 minutes, and it is marked in 25.

Data collection and analysis
To ascertain the subjects’ current level of proficiency in the English language, the Oxford Placement Test, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test have been administered to both the experimental group and the control group prior to the start of their EFL programmes. The data collected from both the groups are checked and scored by hand; and their average proficiency before the start of the EFL programmes or the pre-programme linguistic level of each of the groups is computed.
Interlanguage has so far been studied by a good number of psycholinguists (e.g. Brown 1973, Dulay and Burt 1974) in two manners ? the morpheme studies and error analysis. However, error analysis has been adopted to serve the purpose of the present study, and is performed to detect the linguistic deficiencies or errors/mistakes in the data gathered from the experimental group before the start of the EFL programme. ‘Let the errors determine the categories’ approach (Norrish 1983) is used to group the errors (/mistakes) as they are basically related to particular grammatical, semantic, phonetic, phonological, lexical and comprehensive problems. This approach is employed since it has the advantage of allowing the errors (/mistakes) themselves to determine the categories chosen: by a process of sorting and resorting the categories will eventually define themselves.
Then both the groups have completed their respective EFL programmes, each of 72 contact hours. The control group has been taught according to the syllabus already designed by the Language Centre whereas the experimental group has been taught according to the syllabus designed by course teacher in the light of the results of the error analysis of the data collected from the subjects of this group before the start of the EFL programme. At the end of the programmes, the Oxford Placement Test, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test have again been given to both the groups, and their average proficiency after the completion of the EFL programmes or the post-programme linguistic level of each of the groups is computed. In addition, error analysis is again carried out to uncover errors/mistakes in the data gathered from the experimental group after the completion of the EFL programme.

Presentation and interpretation of the findings
The analysis of the data collected from both the experimental group and the control group by using the Oxford Placement Test, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test produces four types of findings.

Pre-programme linguistic level
The average marks secured by both the experimental group and the control group in the Oxford Placement Test, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test before their receiving any instruction in the EFL programme are shown in Table-1 below:

Proficiency Tests Experimental Group Control Group

Test of Grammatical Structures 40
41
Test of Reading and Listening Skills 33
31
Free Composition Test 6
6.5
Speaking Test 11.5
12
Table-1
The findings presented in Table-1 reveal that the average marks of the experimental group are a good approximation to those of the control group. While the experimental group secures 40, 33, 6 and 11.5 in Test of grammatical Structures, Test of Reading and Listening Skills, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test respectively, the control group gets 41, 31, 6.5 and 12 in the same tests respectively. That is, the pre-programme linguistic levels of both the groups are almost the same.
These results might be attributed to the fact that the subjects belonging to both the experimental group and the control group possess almost everything in common, such as the same mother tongue, the same age group, similar educational background, similar exposure to EFL, and the same objective of learning EFL. However, the insignificant difference between the scores of the two groups can be supported by the existing finding that there is individual variability within uniformity of interlanguage (Andersen 1978 and Hyltenstam 1977).

Pre-programme linguistic deficiencies of the experimental group
The linguistic deficiencies detected by the error analysis of the data collected from the experimental group prior to the start of the ELT programme are summed up and discussed as follows:
Test of Grammatical Structures: The Test of Grammatical Structures taken by the subjects of the experimental group exhibits that the subjects have considerable deficiency in linguistic competence as well as performance. They have committed both ‘errors of competence’, that is, failures in using appropriate and correct language forms and rules to transmit or perceive messages, and ‘errors of performance’, that is, mistakes occurring due to the subjects’ insufficient practice, indifference, fatigue, or anxiety. More specifically, the subjects have inadequate knowledge of and ability to use appropriate and correct count/non-count nouns, e.g. ‘information, homework’, determiners, e.g. ‘few, little, some’, relative pronouns, e.g. ‘that, which, where’, connectors, e.g. ‘since, because, or’, adverbs, e.g. ‘always, recently, hardly, scarcely, really’, modals, e.g. ‘could, will, shall, would, may, can, might, must, need’, verb forms and tenses, subject-verb agreement and prepositions. Moreover, they are found to have encountered difficulty in forming negative sentences, questions, passive sentences, reported speech, conditionals, tag questions, and the like.
The finding is consistent with those uncovered by Haque and Maniruzzaman (1993) and Maniruzzaman (2003), and can be thought over to be the outcome of the insufficient and defective input and formal instruction in the grammatical structures the subjects received before the start of the present EFL programme.
Test of Reading and Listening Skills: The Test of Reading and Listening Skills unfolds that the subjects lack proficiency in both reading and listening comprehension. Their skimming and scanning ability is very poor and reading speed so slow. Besides, they seem to have insufficient vocabulary and knowledge of sentence structures, and hence poor reading comprehension ability. Furthermore, the subjects confront much difficulty in listening to utterances since many English vowel and consonant sounds are unfamiliar to them. They face problems particularly with long monophthongs, diphthongs, labio-dentals, inter-dentals and sibilants. Moreover, they cannot cope with the effects produced by strong-weak forms, stress and intonation. As a consequence, their ability of listening to utterances and understanding information is very limited.
The findings could be attributed to several factors, such as defective and inappropriate teaching methods and techniques, inadequate and irrelevant material, the subjects’ lack of practice, uncongenial learning environment, mother tongue interference, and so on.
Free Composition Test: The Test of Free Composition reveals that the subjects face problems of constructing correct sentences and presenting ideas in a well-organized manner. This is due to their inadequate command of the uses of different grammatical categories, such as tenses, articles, demonstratives, possessives, quantifiers, subject-verb agreement, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, passivization, and spellings as well as the usages of different of words. This finding again lends support to those uncovered by Haque and Maniruzzaman (1993) and Maniruzzaman (2003), and can be considered to be the outcome of the limitations in the whole teaching process encompassing the teacher, syllabus, teaching methods and techniques, materials, equipment and testing tools.
Speaking Test: The Speaking Test discloses that the subjects tremendously lack both linguistic and communicative competence since they have limited skills at using contractions, suprasegmental features ? stress, tone and intonation, appropriate words and utterances in an appropriate way with appropriate persons in appropriate situations. The result might be explained by the fact that the speaking skill is very much neglected in the ELT classroom in Bangladesh. And outside the classroom, the subjects hardly get any opportunity of (practising) speaking in the English language.

Post-programme linguistic level
The average marks secured by both the experimental group and the control group in the Oxford Placement Test, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test after their receiving instruction in the EFL programme are displayed in Table-2 below:

Proficiency Tests Experimental Group Control Group

Test of Grammatical Structures 81
55
Test of Reading and Listening Skills 78
49
Free Composition Test 14
8.5
Speaking Test 22
15
Table-2
The results showed in Table-2 disclose that the average marks of the experimental group are significantly much higher than those of the control group. The experimental group obtains 81, 78, 14 and 22 in Test of grammatical Structures, Test of Reading and Listening Skills, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test respectively whereas the control group gets 55, 49, 8.5 and 15 in the same tests respectively.
These findings can certainly be attributed to the fact that the subjects of the experimental group received instruction in the English language through the syllabus, teaching methods and techniques as well as materials designed, adapted and adopted on the basis of the study of the interlanguage of the subjects of this group; on the other hand, the subjects of the control group learned the English language in the pre-planned and pre-designed programme of the Language Centre having no link to the study of their interlanguage before the commencement of their EFL programme.

Post-programme linguistic deficiencies of the experimental group
The error analysis of the data collected from the experimental group after the completion of the EFL programme designed and conducted on the basis of the findings of the error analysis of the data gathered from the same group prior to the commencement of the EFL programme conspicuously shows that the subjects have had their linguistic level substantially improved since this time they have secured significantly higher marks in Test of Grammatical Structures, Test of Reading and Listening Skills, Free Composition Test and Speaking Test, as compared with those of the previous time. That is, they have now committed less errors/mistakes and prove to have acquired a good command of all the basic skills of the English language ? listening, speaking, reading and writing. This finding is due to the consideration and exploitation of the findings of the error analysis of the data gathered from the experimental group before the beginning of the EFL programme.

Conclusions and suggestions
The analysis and interpretation of the findings of the present investigation lead to two conspicuous inferences.
Firstly, the study of interlanguage helps determine the current linguistic level of the learner. As a result, it is possible to find out what the learner lacks and what he/she need learn to reach a standard of the English language. That is, the research into the learner’s interim dialect of the target language evidently demonstrates both the general and specific linguistic as well as communicative weaknesses he/she has, and indicates the future course of action.
Secondly, the EFL programme which is based on the study of the interlanguage of the learner is more effective and successful than that which is designed and implemented on the basis of theories, assumptions, experiences and predictions.
Therefore, it can be claimed that the study of interlanguage is substantially relevant to teaching English as a foreign language especially at the tertiary level.
Based on the conclusions of the current study, several linguistic and pedagogic recommendations could be made.
First, the learner’s interlanguage can be analyzed and investigated to select and sequence the contents or teaching/learning items of the syllabus. In other words, the results of the study of the interlanguage of the learner should be used to reveal what he/she need learn in which order to approximate a standard of the target language. In this manner, the study of the interlanguage of the learner might be exploited as an instrument complementary to needs analysis of the same learner.
Second, through the study of the interlanguage of the learner, the teacher should have a clear concept of the nature of the learner’s interim language. This knowledge might help the teacher feel more confident and become more competent than before in discovering the learner’s errors, the causes of the errors, and taking sufficient and suitable remedial measures to properly treat the errors.
Third, the study of interlanguage should be carried out so as to be aware of the individual variability within uniformity; and teaching methods, techniques and classroom activities should be planned, adapted, adopted and implemented accordingly.
Finally, the universality or common characteristics of interlanguage may be considered to choose and order the common contents of the syllabus and adopt some common steps to treat them appropriately and adequately in the classroom situation.

Works Cited
Adjemian, C. “On the nature of interlanguage system.” Language Learning 26 (1976): 297-320.
Andersen, R. “An implicational model for second language acquisition.” Language Learning 28 (1978): 221-282.
Allan, D. Oxford Placement Test. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Brown, R. A First Language: The Early Stages. Cambridge:, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.
Corder, S. P. “The significance of learners’ errors.” International Review of Applied Linguistics 4 (1967): 161-169.
– – – . Introducing Applied Linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973.
Dulay, H. C. and M. K. Burt. “Errors and Strategies in Child Second Language Acquisition.” TESOL Quarterly 8 (1974): 129-136.
Ellis, Rod. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Haque, S. M. and M. Maniruzzaman. “The need for the study of language.” The Dhaka University Studies 50, 2 (1993): 100-114.
Hyltenstam, K. “Implication patterns in interlanguage syntax variation.” Language Learning 27 (1977): 383-411.
Maniruzzaman, M. “The rationale behind teaching language to students of literature.” The Jahangirnagar Review Part- C XIII & XIV (2001-2002 & 2002-2003): 235-249.
– – – . Introduction to English Language Study. Dhaka: Friends’ Book Corner, 2006.
Mitchell, R. and F. Myles. Second language Learning Theories. Great Britain: Arnold, 1998.
Nemser, W. “Approximative systems of foreign language learners.” International Review of Applied Linguistics 9 (1971): 115-123.
Norrish, J. Language Learners and Their Errors. London: Macmillan, 1983.
Selinker, L. “Language transfer.” General Linguistics 9 (1969): 67-92.
– – – . “Interlanguage.” IRAL 10 (1972): 209-231.
Spolsky, B. Conditions for Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Sudman, S. Applied Sampling. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1976.
Tarone, E. “Interlanguage as a chameleon.” Language Learning 29 (1979): 181-191.
Towell, R. and R. Hawkins. Approaches to Second Language Acquisitin. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1994.

APPENDIX-A
Test of Grammatical Structures
Time- 90 Minutes
Look at these examples. The correct answer is underlined:
a. In warm climates people like likes are liking sitting outside in the sun.

b. If it is very hot they sit at in under the shade.

Now the test will begin. Underline the correct answers:

Today they are there are it is many millions of people learning English. 1 …

Some people study studies is studying English for a special reason. 2 …

They may need English for the job job their job . 3 …

Some of them need need to are needing speak to English people 4 …

The majority of learners of English has are having have other needs. 5 …

Most users of English use it

for talk that they can talk to talk to people who aren’t English. 6 …

It is There is There are hardly any parts of the world where English 7 …
is never spoken.
Most of The most Most people have heard some English at some time. 8 …

Very few people haven’t heard some the any English spoken at all. 9 …

English is undoubtedly the most the more a most widely-used language in the world. 10 …
For many years the Guinness Book of Records has been one of the most popular books

of in under the United Kingdom. 11 …

It has been was is first published in 1955 12 …

Since then it is was has been a regular bestseller. 13 …

Most of the records in it are changing have changed changed 14 …
many times in recent years.

In 1954, the year the first Guinness Book of Records was being compiled,

the world mile record could be was being was broken more than once. 15 …

The year before that, in 1953, it

had stood used to stand still was standing at over four minutes. 16 …

But in 1954 the four-minute barrier could was to should be broken several times. 17 …

Roger Bannister’s famous run was the first time anyone has had would even run so fast. 18 …

If Dr. Bannister had not been would not have been would not be 19 …
the first to run the mile in under four minutes he would not be so well known.

The record has been held by a great number deal many of runners since then. 20 …

This history of computer the computer a computer is really 21 …

a quite quite a quite long one. A computer is essentially an 22 …

efficient means of processing informations an information information . 23 …

For thousands of years a man man the man has been using 24 …
different types of instrument to overcome the problems caused by unwieldy number systems.

Early mathematicians had difficulty to use difficulties to use difficulty in using 25 …

the umber systems of their societies but succeeded

to develop in developing into developing personal number 26 …

systems in what where which to carry out their calculations. 27 …

The decimal number system, which we

are used to working used to work have been used to working 28 …

with for since during a long time now, and which is 29 …

such such a so common basis of calculation today, has not 30 …

ever still always been as widely used 31 …

like that as it is now. 32 …

Both number systems dependent from of on the notion 33 …

of zero were developed in some ancient societies in parallel with

mechanical aids to calculation. As long ago as 500 B.C. * in other words

for some 25 centuries some 25 centuries earlier some 25 centuries ago 34 …

* the abacus
were being was being has been used in China. 35 …

This aid to calculation, and the counting tables used by the Babylonians and the

Greeks, were the real forerunners of the ‘mainframes’ and ‘micros’ that are so

familiar today, of what which these we call a ‘computer’. 36 …

Over the centuries between the invention of the abacus and the production of

the first electronic digital computer in 1943 a vast number of different tools

and machines for calculating have been were has been 37 …
developed. Logarithms and ‘bones’ were both invented in the 17th century.

Before that, mathematicians and inventors

could develop have developed had developed many other 38 …

types of aid but with much fewer little less success. The 39 …

first slide rule was produced in 1621 and the first mass-produced multiplying

aid that same this same the next century, just 40 …

few a few not many years later. In 1642 the French 41 …

philosopher, Pascal, produced a mechanical calculator which could do all

what which that basic adding machines do today, but he 42 …

could not have make let it manufactured accurately enough 43 …

to make it reliable. It was a long time long time long before 44 …
manufacturing techniques improved and not until early in the 19th century

came the Arithmometer the Arithmometer came did the Arithmometer come 45 …

on the scene like as for the first commercially successful 46 …

calculator. Its producers could should couldn’t hardly have 47 …

imagined that by the 1980s technology

had advanced will advance would have advanced so far that 48 …

an instrument the size of a wristwatch would be many times more powerful.

True computers are only existing since have only existed for have only been existing for 49 …

forty years but the 1980s have seen a computer explosion. By the time we

will reach will have reached reach the end of the decade, all 50 …

our lives will be directly affected by computers.

One evening Sandra’s fiancé, John, tells her

he’s going he’d go he goes out for a drink with his friends 51 …

and she decides she likes she’ll like she’d like to go to 52 …

the college disco rather than stay in

on her own by her own hy her self . After a while she meets 53 …

Bob, an old boyfriend of her them hers and a friend of 54 …

John’s. At first she’s glad of his company, but then his attentions

become rather too few little much and she’s 55 …

no more no longer not any more enjoying herself. 56 …

Bob : Come on ? Shall Won’t Wouldn’t you have another 57 …

drink ? It won’t take a minute to get for getting get you one. 58 …

Sandra : No, really, I’d I I’ve had enough. 59 …

Bob :I’m sure it would make you feel to feel felling better. 60 …
Sandra No, honestly.

I’m feeling myself I feel myself I’m feeling fine, thanks. 61 …

Bob : Well, how about a what’s about a why not to dance ? 62 …

There’s no point sense need to be so unfriendly just because 63 …

you get you’re getting you’re to be got married. You 64 …

should could might as well enjoy yourself while you can. 65 …

Sandra : Actually, Bob, I think I I’ll I’d better be going now. 66 …

It’ll get It’s getting It gets on. 67 …

Bob : What ? Leave now ? It’s not hardly scarcely really got going yet. 68 …

Surely you

don’t have to go have not to go needn’t have gone just yet, 69 …

do you ? Is it because of me ?

Sandra : No, it’s not that, but I really ought to go home I’ve got

a homework some homeworks some homework to do. I 70 …

should have done it last week but

I’ve forgotten I’d forgotten I forgot 71 …

I needn’t mustn’t mightn’t stay any longer or 72 …

I’ll never get I never get I’d never got it done. 73 …

Bob : You could do it in the morning it.

you’ll get you’d get you got up early. 74 …

There’s not much point you try to try in trying to start 75 …

now. You may can could as well enjoy yourself now, then 76 …

get a good night’s rest and do it tomorrow. Come on, let’s have a dance.

Sandra : Look? I’ve I I’d already said I’ve got to 77 …

go and I’ll I I’d mean it. I 78 …

shall should go should have gone ages ago, in fact 79 …

I had rather I’d have rather I’d have preferred not come at 80 …

all. I really wish I wouldn’t have didn’t hadn’t now. 81 …

Bob : You might would may have told me you were in such 82 …

a lousy mood. I wouldn’t have bothered trying to be friendly.

Sandra : Come on, Bob? It’s time I left I’ll leave I leave and 83 …

that’s all there is to it.

Bob : In that case I’ll tell I tell I’m telling you what I could 84 …

do. I could offer you a lift. It’ll It’d This will be a lot 85 …

quicker than the bus.

Sandra : Oh yes ? By the time we’d go we’d been we go 86 …

round all the country lanes. Not on your life ?

I’ll I I’d rather walk. Goodnight *
87 …

Bob : What a night ? If only

I’d I’d have I’ve known in the first place. 88

That she doesn’t want anything to do with me any more ? well,

it’s the first time I’ve been I’m going I go to a disco for ages. 89 …

and after tonight it’d been it’d be it’ll be the last. Never again ! Or at 90 …

least not till next week !

Look at the following examples of question tags in English. The correct form of the tag is underlined :

a. He’s getting the 9.15 train, isn’t he hasn’t he wasn’t he ?

b. She works in a library, isn’t she doesn’t she doesn’t he ?

c. Tom didn’t tell you, hasn’t he didn’t he did he ?

Now underline the correct question tag in the following 10 items :

Perter’s due back tomorrow, wasn’t he hasn’t he isn’t he ? 91 …

It’s been ages since we last saw him, didn’t we hasn’t it isn’t it ? 92 …

I don’t believe you’d met before that, hadn’t you wouldn’t you had you ? 93 …

We’d no idea he was coming, had we did we hadn’t we ? 94 …

I guess he’s hardly likely to go out there again, do I isn’t he is he ? 95 …

Nobody has dinner there in the evening before ten,

have they has he do they ? 96 …

I guess you’d rather we didn’t eat too late tomorrow,

did we would you shouldn’t you ? 97 …

So you think he can get away with not going back till next year,

could he can’t he do you ? 98 …

I’d better give this a final read through before I hand it over,

shouldn’t I wouldn’t I hadn’t I ? 99 …

You’d no idea it was going to be as hard as this,

hadn’t you had you did you ? 100 …

APPENDIX-B
Test of Reading and Listening Skills
Look at the example below. Listen to the tape. You will hear the example once only. Decide which word you hear, ‘soap’, or ‘soup’:

a. Will you get me some soap soup at the supermarket ?
The word was ‘soup’, so ‘soup’ is underlined. Now look at these examples and listen to the tape again. This time, you underline the words you hear. For example, if you hear ‘shorts’ underline ‘shorts’ :

b. The team need new shirts shorts .

c. They’ve recently developed a new kind of vine wine around here.

The words on the tape were ‘shorts’ and ‘vine’, so the correct answers look like this:

b. The team need new shirts shorts .

c. They’ve recently developed a new kind of vine wine around here.

Now the test will begin. Listen to the tape and underline the words you hear:

1. Who’s paying playing tonight ?

2. She fell and hurt her chin shin .

3. Mr. Foot’s speech paid particular attention to the mounting

crisis prices we are now facing.

4. The appointment is almost certain to be vetted vetoed by the government.

5. Can you sew up soak the bottom of my jeans for me ? They’re in an awful mess.

6. For the third time this year Wembley has been filled with Tottenham tartan scarves.

7. There’s a Paul call for you on line one.

8. During the last couple of years there have been marked market
variations throughout Europe.

9. Sorry, John’s not at home. He’s out walking working at the moment.

10. She got it for her a friend.

11. He put all the things into in two bags.

12. He’s been having a lot of trouble with his ankle uncle recently.

13. I hear you’re going to Turkey Torquay for your holidays.

14. Simon’s Someone’s on the phone for you.

15. As with many poorer countries, it’s largely a problem of the distribution of

welfare wealth there .

16. If you’re looking for Andy, he’s out on the pier beer .

17. I must say I wouldn’t have thought he’d have taken it to heart too hard .

18. Has his chess chest improved at all recently ?

19. Because of his previous record he was given a light life sentence.

20. Don’t tell anybody but I I’d do it for nothing.

21. I love the smell of all spice Old spice but my wife can’t stand it.

22. Would you like another coffee copy ?

23. Let Susie play with it for now an hour . You’ve had a go.

24. Do you really think this action section is necessary ?

25. Are you going to Seapalling see Pauline today ?

26. Many of the passengers received fatal facial injuries.

27. He’s responsible for collating collecting information on market trends.

28. When I was at Cambridge the place was full of hearty arty people.

29. Unemployment on Teesside Deeside is running at over twenty per cent.

30. I hear that Connors has lost a game again .

31. Can you pick that pen pin up for me, please ?

32. I understand you’re very critical of the offer author .

33. Shares usually rise on the first day Thursday of budget week.

34. Despite what you say it’s really rarely a problem.

35. Though the scores were level the Welsh were right on top in terms of

position possession .

36. I gather you rang confirming concerning my flight to Athens.

37. If that’s so it’s more than likely unlikely he’ll have to leave.

38. She gratefully gracefully accepted their applause.

39. On one level the film can be seen as a savage betrayal portrayal
of his working-class background.

40. The country is now suffering from a shortage of farriers harriers .

41. Hoddle looks likely to win his third cup cap this year.

42. What’s that you’ve got on your list wrist .

43. Sunflowers Some flowers grow very tall in this part of East Anglia.

44. How soon will they be able to let us have a reply replay ? By the end
of next week ?

45. The government reported that the remainder of the Asians agents
had been deported.

46. He was late because he went the long wrong way.

47. I could manage a wee weak cup of coffee.

48. Do you know where ‘Classics’ Class six is today ?

49. I’m surprised they didn’t have any rum room at the pub.

50. The government insisted on preconditions three conditions
for the sovereignty negotiations.

51. When I told him he just said, ‘Oh, good ! ‘
‘Oh, God !
.

52. I just didn’t think he’d be armed harmed .

53. If you’re looking for the sherry it’s in the decanter under the counter .

54. There’s no need for him to be so big-headed pig-headed about it.

55. She goes out at nine night to her job at the factory.

56. Do you think she was responsible for enticing inciting him to do it ?

57. As I entered the house there was a lovely smell of bacon baking .

58. Can you let me have a black blank one ?

59. The new test material will probably be for the adopted adapted .
teacher’s courses.

60. Do you know if it’s been being done ?

61. There are many countries nowadays where private phone calls can be tapped taped .

62. We’ve gone through today’s two days money in less than an hour.

63. It wasn’t until some time after the accident that we found out he was’t injured insured .

64. If you do get her a racket for her birthday, get her a good wood one.

65. I’ll I’ve put the call through to him.

66. I much prefer squid when it’s fried in butter batter .

67. Martina lives in a great big freezing Friesian barn.

68. Your sister solicitor has just been on the phone.

69. The president omitted admitted the fact that unemployment was still rising.

70. We’ll have to see if we can present the information on a new news sheet.

71. It’s very difficult not to lose face faith in a situation like that.

72. There isn’t a lot of Joyce choice on this year’s syllabus.

73. Many of us have been heartened hardened by recent events.

74. I like it well-prepared unsalted well peppered salted and medium rare.

75. The criticisms were apparently unanimous anonymous .

76. I should imagine that the castle was quite unassailable unsaleable .

77. Are you going off to after the conference on Saturday ?

78. Are you intending to go to the Hull whole seminar ?

79. I believe they set sat that particular paper in June.

80. He appeared to be absolutely naked knackered .

81. In the last couple of years he’s been on all the Norfolk marshes marches .

82. I gather her husband roped wrote her into the play.

83. You have to go to the left lift first to get to Room 415.

84. He said we’d be fine fined with six in the car.

85. I’m not sure how the money is to be paid. Do you want a cheque to check ?

86. Do you know the riddle about the thirty sick thirty-six sheep ?

87. My son’s German pen-friend doesn’t know what he means when he

says, ‘Wanna bet ?’ ‘Wanna bat ?’ .

88. I’m afraid onion rings cooked in butter batter don’t agree with me.

89. There’s a lovely little takeaway round the corner where they do

salami on rye salami and rice specials.

90. If you have any problems, please contact the British Council Consul immediately.

91. It’s steep deep , isn’t it ?

92. I’m very glad you Hugh can come tonight.

93. I’ve got to go and lock unlock the car.

94. Watch What’s the time, love ! / ?

95. My daughter’s just got some Bally ballet shoes.

96. Have you got a ticket to take it to Cambridge ?

97. There’s a chapel on chap along our road might be able to help you.

98. If you’re asking if I want to go out with you, the answer is I don’t, no I don’t know .

99. The local garage is dirt-cheap garages do it cheap .

100. Forfar 4 East Fife 5 Forfar 5 East Fife 4 was the highest score of the day.

APPENDIX-C
Free Composition Test
Time- 1 Hour
Marks- 20
Write a composition of 400 words on any one of the following topics:
a. Your future plan
b. Importance of English
c. Family life

APPENDIX-D
Speaking Test
Time- 45 Minutes
Marks-25

1. Write what you say to- 1×10=10
a. request your friend for a pen.
b. enter your teacher’s room.
c. draw somebody’s attention.
d. disapprove something.
e. offer tea to a guest.
f. invite your friend to your birthday party.
g. prefer coffee to tea.
h. meet a person for the first time.
i. express regrets for some mistakes.
j. advise your younger brother against something.

2. Write a dialogue with each of the situations: 5×2=10
(a) You have met your school friend in a bus stop after many years.
(b) You and your younger brother are discussing a TV programme.

3. This is a dialogue between Rafit and a passer-by. Fill in what the passer-by says by reading Rafit’s replies: 1×5=5
Rafit: Excuse me. I wonder if you can help me.
Passer-by: ? ? ??
Rafit: I’m looking for GPO. I can’t find it.
Passer-by: ? ? ?.
Rafit: How much will it take?
Passer-by: ? ? ?.
Rafit: Can’t I go by rickshaw?
Passer-by: ? ? ?.
Rafit: Then it’s better to go by bus.
Passer-by: ? ? ?.
Rafit: I much thank you.

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