University of Cambridge

Reference ranges for blood tests

Interpretation

The range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval), or two standard deviations from the mean, although the definition may differ (see Definition of reference range). It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood

All values (except the exceptions below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60-100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

All values in Hematology – red blood cells (except hemoglobin in plasma)

All values in Hematology – white blood cells

Platelet count (Plt)

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:

Vitamin B9 (Folic acid/Folate) in red blood cells

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Units

Mass concentration (g/dL or g/L) is the most common measurement unit in the United States. Is usually given with dL (decilitres) as the denominator in the United States, and usually with L (litres) in, for example, Sweden.

Molar concentration (mol/L) is used to a higher degree in most of the rest of the world, including the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe and Australia and New Zealand.

International units (IU) are based on measured biological activity or effect, or for some substances, a specified equivalent mass.

Enzyme activity (kat) is commonly used for e.g. liver function tests like AST, ALT, LD and -GT in Sweden.

Arterial or venous

If not else specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays). Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.

Inaccuracy

Main article: Reference range#Inaccuracy

References range will vary with age, sex, race, diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs, stress and even the instruments used. The samples may deviate from normal distribution. Furthermore, reference ranges only denote what are usual values in the population, and do not directly correlate with the ranges for optimal health. In case of substantial difference, there may additionally be an optimal range specified for the substance. Finally, the test procedure itself may be erroneous or inaccurate.

Sorted by concentration

A separate printable combined image is available for mass and molarity

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard “usual” reference range.

By mass and molarity

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (g/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or mol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

To translate a substance from the molar to the mass concentration scale above:

Numerically: molar concentration x molar mass = mass concentration

Measured directly in distance on the scales:

, where distance is in number of decades or “octaves” to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend (molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540, is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have “negative” distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven’t been added to the article.

By units

Units don’t necessarily tell anything about molarity or mass.

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity

White blood cells

Clinical biochemistry

Clinical chemistry (also known as “clinical biochemistry”, “chemical pathology” or “pure blood chemistry”) is the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

Electrolytes and Metabolites

Electrolytes and Metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

Test
Patient type

Lower limit
Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Sodium (Na)

135, 137

145, 147

mmol/L or mEq/L

31 , 32

33 , 34

mg/dl

Potassium (K)

3.5 , 3.6

5.0 , 5.1

mmol/L or mEq/L

See hypokalemia or hyperkalemia

14

20

mg/dl

Chloride (Cl)

95, 98, 100

105, 106, 110

mmol/L or mEq/L

340

370

mg/dl

Osmolality

275, 280, 281

295, 296, 297

mOsm/kg

Plasma weight excludes solutes

Osmolarity

Slightly less than osmolality

mOsm/l

Plasma volume includes solutes

Urea

1.2, 3.0

3.0, 7.0

mmol/L

BUN – blood urea nitrogen

7

18, 21

mg/dL

* Uric acid

0.18

0.48

mmol/L

Female

2.0

7.0

mg/dL

Male

2.1
8.5

mg/dL

Creatinine

male

60 , 68

90 , 118

mol/L

May be complemented with creatinine clearance

0.7 , 0.8

1.0 , 1.3

mg/dL

female

50 , 68

90 , 98

mol/L

0.6 , 0.8

1.0 , 1.1

mg/dL

BUN/Creatinine Ratio

5

35



Plasma glucose (fasting)

3.8 , 4.0

6.0 , 6.1

mmol/L

See also glycosylated hemoglobin (in hematology)

65, 70, 72

100, 110

mg/dL

Full blood glucose (fasting)

3.3

5.6

mmol/L

60

100

mg/dL

Total serum iron (TSI)

male

65, 76

176, 198

g/dL

11.6 , 13.6

30, 32, 35

mol/L

female

26, 50

170

g/dL

4.6 , 8.9

30.4

mol/L

newborns

100

250

g/dL

18

45

mol/L

children

50

120

g/dL

9

21

mol/L

Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)

240, 262

450, 474

g/dL

43 , 47

81 , 85

mol/L

Transferrin

190, 194, 204

326, 330, 360

mg/dL

25

45

mol/L

Transferrin saturation

20

50

 %

Ferritin

Male

12

300

ng/mL

27
670

pmol/L

Female

12

150

ng/mL

27
330

pmol/L

Ammonia

10, 20

35, 65

mol/L

17 , 34

60 , 110

g/dL

Copper

70

150

g/dL

11
24

mol/L

Ceruloplasmin

15

60

mg/dL

1
4

mol/L

Lactate (Venous)

4.5

19.8

mg/dL

0.5

2.2

mmol/L

Lactate (Arterial)

4.5

14.4

mg/dL

0.5

1.6

mmol/L

Pyruvate

300

900

g/dL

34
102

mol/L

Acid-base and blood gases

Further information: Acid-base homeostasis

Further information: Arterial blood gas

If arterial/venous is not specified for a acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values. Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.

Test

Arterial/Venous

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

pH

Arterial

7.34, 7.35

7.44, 7.45

Venous

7.31

7.41

[H+]
Arterial

36

44

nmol/L

3.6
4.4

ng/dL

Base excess

Arterial & venous

-3

+3

mEq/L

oxygen pressure (pO2)

Arterial

10 , 11

13 , 14

kPa

75, 83

100, 105

mmHg or torr

Venous

4.0

5.3

kPa

30

40

mmHg or torr

Oxygen saturation

Arterial

94, 95, 96

100

 %

Venous

Approximately 75

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Arterial

4.4, 4.7

5.9 , 6.0

kPa

Designated pCO2

33, 35

44, 45

mmHg or torr

23

30

mmol/L

100

132

mg/dL

Venous

5.5

6.8

kPa

41

51

mmHg or torr

Bicarbonate (HCO3, )

Arterial & venous

18

23

mmol/L

110

140

mg/dL

Standard bicarbonate (SBCe)

Arterial & venous

21-22

27-28

mmol/L or mEq/L

134

170

mg/dL

Liver function

Further information: Liver function tests

Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Total Protein

60, 63

78, 82, 84

g/L

see hypoproteinemia

Albumin

35

48, 55

g/L

see hypoalbuminemia

3.5

4.8, 5.5

U/L

540

740

mol/L

Globulins

23

35

g/L

Total Bilirubin

1.7, 2, 3.4, 5

17, 22, 25

mol/L

0.1, 0.2, 0.29

1.0, 1.3, 1.4

mg/dL

Direct/Conjugated Bilirubin

0.0 or N/A

5 , 7

mol/L

0

0.3, 0.4

mg/dL

Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT)

1, 5, 7, 8

20, 21, 56

U/L

Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)

Female

0.15

0.75

kat/L

Male

0.15

1.1

Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT)

Female

6

34

IU/L

Also called

serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)

0.25

0.60

kat/L

Male

8

40

IU/L

0.25

0.75

kat/L

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

Female

42

98

U/L

Male

53

128

(Enzyme activity)

0.6

1.8

kat/L

Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)

5 , 8

40, 78

U/L

Cardiac tests

Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Creatine kinase (CK) – male

24, 38, 60

174 , 320

U/L

or ng/mL

Creatine kinase (CK) – female

24, 38, 96

140 , 200

CK-MB

0

3, 3.8, 5

ng/mL or g/L

Troponin Values 12 hrs after onset of pain:

Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Troponin-T

0.02

ng/mL or g/L

Upper limit of normal

Troponin-I

0.2

ng/mL or g/L

Upper limit of normal

Troponin-T

0.02

0.10

ng/mL or g/L

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Troponin-I

0.2

1.00

ng/mL or g/L

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Troponin-T

0.10

n/a

ng/mL or g/L

Myocardial Infarction likely

Troponin-I

1.00

n/a

ng/mL or g/L

Myocardial Infarction likely

Other enzymes and proteins

Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

50

150

U/L

0.4

1.7

mol/L

LDH (enzyme activity)

1.8

3.4

kat/L

< 70 years old

Amylase

25, 30, 53

110, 120, 123, 125, 190

U/L

0.15

1.1

kat/L

C-reactive protein (CRP)

n/a

5, 6

mg/L

200 , 240

nmol/L

D-dimer

n/a

500

ng/mL

Higher in pregnant women

0.5

mg/L

Lipase

7, 10, 23

60, 150, 208

U/L

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)

23

57

U/L

Acid phosphatase

3.0

ng/mL

Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)

2.3

16

g/L

Other ions and trace metals

Further information: Trace metals

Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Ionized calcium (Ca)

1.03 , 1.10

1.23 , 1.30

mmol/L

4.1 , 4.4

4.9 , 5.2

mg/dL

Total calcium (Ca)

2.1 , 2.2

2.5, 2.6, 2.8

mmol/L

8.4, 8.5

10.2, 10.5

mg/dL

Phosphate (HPO42)

0.8

1.5
mmol/L

Inorganic phosphorus (serum)

1.0

1.5

mmol/L

3.0

4.5

mg/dL

Copper (Cu)

11

24

mol/L

Zinc (Zn)

60 , 72

110 , 130

g/dL

9.2 , 11

17 , 20

mol/L

Magnesium

1.5 , 1.7

2.0 , 2.3

mEq/L or mg/dL

0.6 , 0.7

0.82 , 0.95

mmol/L

Selenium (optimal range)

120

g/L

Lipids

Further information: Blood lipids

Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Therapeutic target

Triglycerides

10 39 years

54

110

mg/dL

< 100 mg/dL

or 1.1 mmol/L

0.61

1.2
mmol/L

40 59 years

70

150

mg/dL

0.77

1.7

mmol/L

> 60 years

80

150

mg/dL

0.9

1.7

mmol/L

Total cholesterol

3.0 , 3.6

5.0, 6.5

mmol/L

< 3.9
120, 140

200, 250

mg/dL

< 150
HDL cholesterol

female

1.0, 1.2, 1.3

2.2

mmol/L

> 1.0 mmol/L
> 40 or 60 mg/dL

40 , 50

86

mg/dL

HDL cholesterol

male

0.9

2.0

mmol/L

35

80

mg/dL

LDL cholesterol

(Not valid when

triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)

2.0, 2.4

3.0 , 3.4

mmol/L

< 2.5
80 , 94

120 , 130

mg/dL

< 100

LDL/HDL quotient

n/a

5

(unitless)

Tumour markers

Further information: Tumour markers

Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)

0

44

ng/mL

Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG)

n/a

5

IU/l or mU/ml

in male and non-pregnant female

CA19-9

n/a

40

U/ml

CA-125

n/a

30 , 35

kU/L or U/mL

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

non-smokers at 50 years

n/a

3.4 , 3.6
g/l

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

non-smokers at 70 years

n/a

4.1

g/l

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) – smokers

n/a

5

g/l

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

n/a

2.5 , 4

g/L or ng/mL

below age 45 <2,5 g/L

PAP

0

3

units/dL (Bodansky units)

Thyroid hormones

Further information: Thyroid hormone

Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Thyroid stimulating hormone

(TSH or thyrotropin)

Adults –

standard range

0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6

4.0, 4.5, 6.0

mIU/L or IU/mL

Adults –

optimal range

0.3 , 0.5

2.0 , 3.0

mIU/L or IU/mL

Infants

1.3

19

mIU/L or IU/mL

Free thyroxine (FT4)

Normal adult

0.7 ,0.8

1.4, 1.5

ng/dL

9, 10, 12
18 , 23

pmol/L

Infant 0-3 d

2.0

5.0

ng/dL

26

65

pmol/L

Infant 3-30 d

0.9

2.2

ng/dL

12

30

pmol/L

Child/Adolescent

31 d – 18 y

0.8

2.0

ng/dL

10

26

pmol/L

Pregnant

0.5

1.0

ng/dL

6.5

13

pmol/L

Total thyroxine

60

140, 160

nmol/L

4, 5.5

11, 12.3

g/dL

Free triiodothyronine (FT3)

Normal adult

0.2

0.5

ng/dL

3.1

7.7

pmol/L

Children 2-16 y

0.1

0.6

ng/dL

1.5

9.2

pmol/L

Total triiodothyronine

0.9 , 1.1

2.5 , 2.7

nmol/L

60, 75

175, 181

ng/dL

Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)

12

30

mg/L

Thyroglobulin (Tg)

1.5

30

pmol/L

1

20
g/L

Sex hormones

Further information: Sex steroid

Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Testosterone

Male, overall

8 , 10

27 , 35

nmol/L

230 , 300
780 – 1000

ng/dL

Male < 50 years

10

45

nmol/L

290

1300

ng/dL

Male > 50 years

6.2

26

nmol/L

180

740

ng/dL

Female

0.7

2.8 – 3.0

nmol/L

20

80 – 85

ng/dL

17 Hydroxyprogesterone

male

0.06

3.0

mg/L

Female (Follicular phase)

0.2

1.0

mg/L

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Prepubertal

<1
3

IU/L

Adult male

1

8
Adult female (follicular

and luteal phase)

1

11

Adult female (Ovulation)

6

95% PI (standard)

26

95% PI)

5

90% PI (used in diagram)

15

(90% PI)

Post-menopausal female

30

118

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Female, peak

20

90% PI (used in diagram)

75

(90% PI)

IU/L

Female, post-menopausal

15

60
Estradiol (an estrogen)

Adult male

50

200
pmol/L

1.4

5.5

ng/dL

Adult female (follicular phase, day 5)

70

95% PI (standard)

500
95% PI

pmol/L

110

90% PI (used in diagram)

220

90% PI

1.9 (95% PI)

14 (95% PI)

ng/dL

3.0 (90% PI)

6.0 (90% PI)

Adult female (preovulatory peak)

400

1500

pmol/L

11

41

ng/dL

Adult female (luteal phase)

70

600

pmol/L

1.9

16

ng/dL

Post-menopausal female

N/A
< 130

pmol/L

N/A

< 3.5

ng/dL

Progesterone

Female at day of ovulation

2.2 (90% PI)

9 (90% PI)

nmol/L

70 (90% PI)

280 (90% PI)

ng/dL

Androstenedione

Adult male and female

60

270

ng/dL

Post-menopausal female

< 180

Prepubertal

< 60

Other hormones

Further information: Hormones

Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

4.4

18 ,22

pmol/L

20

80 , 100

pg/mL

Cortisol

09:00 am

140

700

nmol/L

5

25

g/dL

Midnight

80

350

nmol/L

2.9

13

g/dL

Growth hormone (fasting)

0

5

ng/mL

Growth hormone (arginine stimulation)

7

n/a

ng/mL

Prolactin

Female

n/a

20

ng/mL or g/L

Male

15

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

10 , 17

65 , 70

pg/mL

1.1 , 1.8

6.9 , 7.5

pmol/L

25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)

-Standard reference range

8 , 9

40 , 80

ng/mL

20 , 23

95 , 150

nmol/L

25-hydroxycholecalciferol

-Therapeutic target range

30 , 40

65 , 100

ng/mL

85 , 100

120 , 160

nmol/L

Amino acids

Test

Sex

Age

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Elevated

Therapeutic target

Homocysteine

Female

1219 years

3.3
7.2

mol/L

> 10.4 mol/L

or

> 140 g/dl

< 6.3 mol/L
or

< 85 g/dL

45

100

g/dL

>60 years

4.9
11.6
mol/L

66

160

g/dL

Male

1219 years

4.3
9.9
mol/L

> 11.4 mol/L

or

> 150 g/dL

60

130

g/dL

>60 years

5.9
15.3
mol/L

80

210

g/dL

Vitamins

Test

Patient type

Standard range

Unit

Optimal range

Lower limit

Upper limit

Lower limit

Upper limit

Vitamin A

30

65

g/dL

Vitamin B9

(Folic acid/Folate) – Serum

Age > 1year

3.0

16

ng/mL or g/L

5
6.8

36

nmol/l

11

Vitamin B9

(Folic acid/Folate) – Red blood cells

200

600

ng/mL or g/L

450

1400

nmol/L

Pregnant

ng/mL or g/L

400

nmol/L

900

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

130 , 160

700 , 950

ng/L

100 , 120

520 , 700

pmol/L

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

0.4

1.5

mg/dL

0.9

23

85

mol/L

50

25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)

8 , 9

40 , 80

ng/mL

30 , 40

65 , 100

20 , 23

95 , 150

nmol/L

85 , 100

120 , 160

Vitamin E

mol/L

28

mg/dL

1.2

Toxins

Test

Limit type

Limit

Unit

Lead

Optimal health range

< 20 or 40

g/dL

Ethanol

Limit for drunk driving

0, 0.2, 0.8

or g/L

17.4

mmol/L

Hematology

Hematology is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases.

Red blood cells

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test

Patient

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Haemoglobin (Hb)

male

2.0 , 2.1

2.5 , 2.7

mmol/L

Higher in neonates, lower in children.

130, 132, 135

162, 170, 175

g/L

female

1.8 , 1.9

2.3 , 2.5

mmol/L

Sex difference negligible until adulthood.

120
150, 152, 160

g/L

Hemoglobin in plasma

0.16

0.62

mol/L

Normally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells

1

4

mg/dL

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)

< 50 years

3.6

5.0

 % of Hb

> 50 years

3.9

5.3

Haptoglobin

< 50 years

0.35

1.9

g/L

> 50 years

0.47

2.1

Haematocrit (Hct)

male

0.39, 0.4, 0.41, 0.45

0.50, 0.52,0.53 , 0.62

female

0.35, 0.36,0.37

0.46, 0.48

Child

0.31

0.43

Mean cell volume (MCV)

Male

76, 82

100, 102

fL

Cells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.

Female

78

101

fL

Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)

11.5

14.5

 %

Mean cell haemoglobin (MCH)

0.39

0.54

fmol/cell

25, 27

32, 33, 35

pg/cell

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

31, 32

35, 36

g/dL

4.8 , 5.0

5.4 , 5.6

mmol/L

Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC)

male

4.2, 4.3

5.7, 5.9, 6.2, 6.9

x1012/L

Female

3.5, 3.8, 3.9

5.1, 5.5

x1012/L

Infant/Child

3.8

5.5

x1012/L

Reticulocytes

26

130

x109/L

Adult

0.5

1.5

 % of RBC

Newborn

1.1

4.5

 % of RBC

Infant

0.5

3.1

 % of RBC

White blood cells

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

Test

Patient type

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

White Blood Cell Count (WBC.)

Adult

3.5, 3.9, 4.1, 4.5

9.0, 10.0, 10.9, 11

x109/L

x103/mm3 or

x103/L

Newborn

9

30

1 year old

6

18

Neutrophil granulocytes

(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)

Adult

1.3, 1.8, 2

5.4, 7, 8

x109/L

45-54

62, 74

 % of WBC

Newborn

6

26

x109/L

Neutrophilic band forms

Adult

0.7

x109/L

3

5

 % of WBC

Lymphocytes

Adult

0.7 , 1.0

3.5, 3.9, 4.8

x109/L

16-25

33, 45

 % of WBC

Newborn

2

11

x109/L

Monocytes

Adult

0.1, 0.2

0.8

x109/L

3, 4.0

7, 10

 % of WBC

Newborn

0.4

3.1

x109/L

Mononuclear leukocytes

(Lymphocytes + monocytes)

Adult

1.5

5

x109/L

20

35

 % of WBC

CD4+ cells

Adult

0.4 , 0.5

1.5 , 1.8

x109/L

Eosinophil granulocytes

Adult

0.0, 0.04

0.44, 0.45, 0.5

x109/L

1

3, 7

 % of WBC

Newborn

0.02

0.85

x109/L

Basophil granulocytes

Adult

40

100, 200, 900

x106/L

0.0

0.75, 2

 % of WBC

Newborn

0.64
x109/L

Coagulation

Test

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Platelet/Erythrocyte count (Plt)

140, 150

350, 400, 450

x109/L

Prothrombin time (PT)

10, 11, 12

13, 13.5, 14, 15

s

PT reference varies between laboratory kits – INR is standardised

INR

0.9

1.2

The INR is a corrected ratio of a patients PT to normal

Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

18 , 30

28, 42, 45

s

Thrombin clotting time (TCT)

11

18

s

Fibrinogen

1.7, 2.0

3.6 , 4.2

g/L

Antithrombin

0.80

1.2

kIU/L

Bleeding time

2

9

minutes

Viscosity

1.5

1.72

cP

Immunology

Category

Test

Patient

Lower limit

Upper limit

Unit

Comments

Acute phase protein

markers of Inflammation

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

(ESR)

Male

0

Age2

mm/hr

ESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.

Female

(Age+10)2
C-reactive protein (CRP)

n/a

5, 6

mg/L

200 , 240

nmol/L

Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT)

20 , 22

38 , 53

mol/L

89 , 97

170 , 230

mg/dL

Immunoglobulins

IgA

Adult

70 , 110

360 , 560

mg/dL

IgD

0.5

3.0

IgE

0.01

0.04

IgG

800

1800

IgM

54

220

Autoantibodies

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)

Extractable nuclear antigen (ENA)

Rheumatoid factor (RF)

0

20-30

IU/mL

High levels not specific for Rheumatoid Arthritis alone.

Serology

Antistreptolysin O titre

(ASOT)

Preschoolers

n/a

100

units/mL

School age

250

Adult

125

See also

Blood test

Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures

Comprehensive metabolic panel

Medical technologist

Reference range

References

^ Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology By Richard C. Dart Edition: 3, illustrated Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN 0781728452, 9780781728454 1914 pages

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital (“Laborationslista”). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008

^ a b c Arterial versus venous reference ranges – Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour

^ PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI –> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009

^ a b c Unless else specified in boxes, then ref is: Ashwood, Edward R.; Tietz, Norbert W.; Burtis, Carl A. (1994). Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-4472-4. 

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-149868-0. 

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.

^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99mol1

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10mol1

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45mol1

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Blood Test Results – Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com

^ a b Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). “Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town”. J. Clin. Pathol. 33 (4): 3805. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMID 7400337. PMC 1146084. http://jcp.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7400337. 

^ a b c d Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). “Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance”. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37 ( Pt 1): 4959. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373. http://acb.rsmjournals.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10672373. 

^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from g/L to mg/dL

^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test

^ a b c Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol

^ a b c d e f g h i j k Slon S (2006-09-22). “Serum Iron”. University of Illinois Medical Center. http://uimc.discoveryhospital.com/main.php?t=enc&id=1456. Retrieved 2006-07-06. 

^ a b c d Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay July 15, 2005

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85mol1

^ a b Table 1. Page 133. Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.93.3 g/L)

^ a b Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass

^ a b c d Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network

^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000mol1

^ a b Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). “Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype”. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 10847. PMID 11473464. http://journals.allenpress.com/jrnlserv/?request=get-abstract&issn=0003-9985&volume=125&page=1084. 

^ a b Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P (July 1995). “Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion”. Clin. Chem. 41 (7): 1048. PMID 7600690. 

^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55mol1

^ a b Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa

^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol

^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). “Agreement between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate”. Emerg Med J 23 (8): 6224. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMID 16858095. 

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates–> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01mol1

^ a b c d e f g h Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol

^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol

^ Reference range (albumin) at GPnotebook

^ a b Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD

^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fachwrterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jrgen Nhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3437151207, 9783437151200. Length: 1288 pages

^ a b c d GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009

^ a b Creatine kinase at GPnotebook

^ a b c d e f g h i j South London Healthcare NHS Trust

^ Reference range (amylase) at GPnotebook

^ a b C-reactive protein at GPnotebook

^ a b 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)

^ a b c d Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol

^ Plasma Measurement of D-Dimer Levels for the Early Diagnosis of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Walter Ageno, MD; Sergio Finazzi, MD; Luigi Steidl, MD; Maria Grazia Biotti, MD; Valentina Mera, MD; GianVico Melzi d’Eril, MD; Achille Venco, MD. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2589-2593.

^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). “D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed”. Clinical chemistry 51 (5): 8259. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641. http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/51/5/825. 

^ a b Larsson L, Ohman S (November 1978). “Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism”. Clin. Chem. 24 (11): 19625. PMID 709830. http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=709830. 

^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08 mol1

^ a b c Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08 mol1

^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 849

^ Reference range for copper at GPnotebook

^ a b http://www.dlolab.com/PDFs/DLO-OCTOBER-2008-LAB-UPDATE.pdf

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31/mol

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31/mol

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Adeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Retrieved on July 9, 2009

^ a b c d e f Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009

^ a b c Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 39, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009

^ a b c Reference range (cholesterol) at GPnotebook

^ a b c d e f g h Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) – plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007

^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009

^ a b c d e f g h i Derived from values in mmol/l (to mg/dl), by multiplying by 39, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009

^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol

^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009

^ ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009

^ a b Bjerner J, Hgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al. (June 2008). “Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study”. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 68: 112. doi:10.1080/00365510802126836. PMID 18609108. 

^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet

^ The TSH Reference Range Wars: What’s “Normal?”, Who is Wrong, Who is Right… By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006. About.com Health’s Disease and Condition

^ a b 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

^ a b The TSH Reference Range Wars: What’s “Normal?”, Who is Wrong, Who is Right… By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006

^ a b Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer (2002). “LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease”. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/thyroid_LMPG_PDF.stm. Retrieved 2007-04-13.  – see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors

^ a b c d e f g h i j Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free UNC Health Care System

^ a b c d e f g h i j Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays – Thyroid Disease Manager

^ a b c d Euthyroid Patient with Elevated Serum Free Thyroxine George van der Watt1,a, David Haarburger1 and Peter Berman

^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol

^ a b Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children Cioffi Michele; Gazzerro Patrizia; Vietri Maria Teresa; Magnetta Rosa; Durante Adriana; D’Auria Annamaria; Puca Giovanni Alfredo; Molinari Anna Maria ;

^ a b Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis

^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol

^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol

^ a b c d MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director

^ a b c d e f g h i j reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009

^ a b c d e f g h Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer. Reto Stricker, Raphael Eberhart, Marie-Christine Chevailler, Frank A. Quinn, Paul Bischof and Rene Stricker. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44(7):883887 PMID: 16776638

^ a b c d e f New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009

^ a b c d e f g h i j GPNotebook – reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI –> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009

^ “Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal”. WebMD. 09-03-2006. http://children.webmd.com/adrenocorticotropic-hormone?page=2. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 

^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI –> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009

^ a b c d Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009

^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa

^ a b Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). “Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone”. Endocr Pract 12 (2): 13744. PMID 16690460. 

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa

^ a b c d e f Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol

^ a b c d Bender, David A. (2003). “Vitamin D”. Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80388-8. http://books.google.com.br/books?id=pxEJNs0IUo4C.  Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.

^ a b c d Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Dietrich, T., Orav, J.E., Hu, F.B., Zhang, Y., Karlson, E., Dawson-Hughes, B. 2004. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with better lower extremity function in both active and inactive adults 60+ years of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80:752-758.

^ a b c d Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). “Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population”. Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 4027. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329. 

^ a b c d e f g h Letter: Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures. Data are not sufficient to show inefficacy Alex Vasquez, researcher. BMJ 2005;331:108-109 (9 July), doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b.

^ a b c d e f g h The Doctor’s Doctor: Homocysteine

^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol

^ a b c d e f Central Manchester University Hospitals –> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009

^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009

^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol1

^ a b c d e f g GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009

^ a b Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol

^ a b c For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country

^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol

^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol, according to Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). “Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle”. J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511519. PMID 11160049. 

^ a b c d Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol (Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). “Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle”. J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511519. PMID 11160049. ). 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L

^ a b c d e f g h lymphomation.org > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.

^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elbieta Grska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pikowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wsik,

^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652

^ a b Retrieved on November 20, 2009

^ a b Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (1983). “Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate”. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMID 6402065. 

^ Bttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). “Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age”. Br Med J 2 (5544): 857. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMID 6020854. 

^ a b Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). “Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn”. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 25 (3): 2745. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252. http://www.jpho-online.com/pt/re/jpho/fulltext.00043426-200303000-00019.htm. 

^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol

^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol

^ a b c d e f g h i j The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009

External links

biochemical reference values at GPnotebook

Values at lymphomation.org

Descriptions at amarillomed.com

v  d  e

Medical test: Serology, reference range: blood tests

Clinical biochemistry

Metabolic panel

BMP: electrolytes (Na+/K+, Cl-/HCO3-)  renal function, BUN-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Creatinine)  Glucose  Ca

CMP: BMP + protein tests (Human serum albumin, Serum total protein)  liver function tests (ALP, ALT, AST, Bilirubin)

derived values: Plasma osmolality  Serum osmolal gap

Acid-base homeostasis

Arterial blood gas  Base excess  Anion gap  CO2 content

Iron tests

Transferrin saturation = Serum iron / Total iron-binding capacity

Ferritin  Transferrin  Transferrin receptor

Blood sugar

Glucose test  Glucose tolerance test  Noninvasive glucose  C-peptide  Fructosamine  Glycated hemoglobin

Endocrine

ACTH stimulation test  Thyroid function tests

Cardiac marker

Troponin test  CPK-MB test  Glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB

Other

Beutler test  Blood lipids  Tumor marker

Hematology/CBC

Clotting

Platelet count  Mean platelet volume  vWF: Ristocetin induced platelet agglutination

clotting factors: Prothrombin time  Partial thromboplastin time  Thrombin time

other/general coagulation: Bleeding time  animal enzyme (Reptilase time, Ecarin clotting time, Dilute Russell’s viper venom time)  Thromboelastography

fibrinolysis: Euglobulin lysis time  D-dimer

Red blood cell indices

Hematocrit  Hemoglobin  RBC count

ratios: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin  Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration  Mean corpuscular volume

Fetal hemoglobin: Apt-Downey test  Kleihauer-Betke test  Red blood cell distribution width

Reticulocyte index  Haptoglobin

Other

Blood film  Blood viscosity  Absolute neutrophil count

Immunology

Infections

viral infection: HIV (HIV test, BDNA test)  Epstein-Barr virus (Monospot test)

bacterial infection: syphilis (VDRL, Rapid plasma reagin, Wassermann test, FTA-ABS)  rickettsia (Weil-Felix test)  helicobacter (HelicoCARE direct)  streptococcus (Antistreptolysin O titre)

protozoan infection: toxoplasmosis (Sabin-Feldman dye test)

Inflammation

C-reactive protein  Erythrocyte sedimentation rate  MELISA  RAST test

see also reference ranges for blood tests

Categories: Blood tests

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