University of Oxford

A Stylistics Analysis of One Quranic Surah

INTRODUCTION

This surah was revealed towards the end of the third year or the beginning of the fourth year after the Prophet’s migration. This is a Medinan surah. The subject-matter is the need for discipline, practical work and self-sacrifice.  Thus, it is essentially a call for unity between professed belief and actual behaviour.

IN THE NAME OF GOD, THE MOST GRACIOUS,

THE DISPENSER OF GRACE:

 

(1)          ALL THAT IS in the heavens and all that is on earth extols God’s limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!

 

(2)          O YOU who have attained to faith! Why do you say one thing and do another?

(3)           Most loathsome is it in the sight of God that you say what you do not do!

(4)          Verily, God loves [only] those who fight in His cause in [solid] ranks, as though they were a building firm and compact.

(5)          Now when Moses spoke to his people, [it was this same truth that he had in mind:] “O my people! Why do you cause me grief, the while you know that I am an apostle of God sent unto you?” And so, when they swerved from the right way, God let their hearts swerve from the truth: for God does not bestow His guidance upon iniquitous folk.

(6)           And [this happened, too,] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said : “O children of Israel ! Behold, I am an apostle of God  unto  you, [sent] to confirm the truth of whatever these   still remains of the Torah, and to give [you]     the glad tiding of an apostle who shall come  after me, whose name shall be Ahmad.” But when he [whose coming Jesus had foretold] came unto them with all evidence of the truth, they said: “This [alleged message of  his]  is [nothing but] spellbinding eloquence!”

(7)          And who could be more wicked than one who invents [such] a lie about [a message from] God, seeing that he is [but] being called to self-surrender unto Him? But God does not bestow His guidance upon evil-doing folk.

(8)           They aim to extinguish God’s light with their utterances: but God has willed to spread His light in all its fullness, however hateful this may be to all who deny the truth.

(9)          He it is who has sent forth His Apostle with  [the task of] spreading guidance and the religion of truth, to the end that He make it prevail over all [false] religion, however hateful this may be to those who ascribe divinity to aught but God.

(10)      YOU who have attained to faith! Shall I point out to you a bargain that will save you form grievous suffering [in this world and in the life to come]?

(11)      You are to believe in God and His Apostle, and to strive hard in God’s cause with your possessions and your lives: this is for your own good – if you but knew it!

(12)      [If you do so,] He will forgive you  your  sin and [in the life to come] will admit you into gardens through which running waters flow, and into goodly mansions in [those] gardens of perpetual bliss : that [will be] the triumph supreme!

(13)      )And [withal, He will grant you] yet another thing that you dearly love: succour from God [in this world], and a victory soon to come: and [thereof, O Prophet,] give thou a glad tiding to all who believe.

 

(14)      O YOU who have attained to faith! Be helpers [in the cause of God – even as Jesus, the son of Mary, said unto the white-garbed ones, “Who will be my helpers in God’s cause?” – whereupon the white-garbed [disciples] replied, “We shall be [thy] helpers [in the cause] of God!” And so [it happened that] some of the children of Israel came to believe [in the apostleship of Jesus], whereas others denied the truth.  But [now] We have given strength against their foes unto those who have [truly] attained to faith: and they have become the ones that shall prevail (Asad, 1980:860).

THE STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE SIXTY-FIRST SURAH, AS-SAFF  BY MUHAMMAD ASAD

IN THE NAME OF GOD, THE MOST GRACIOUS, THE DISPENSER OF GRACE:

Analysis: The Muslims recite the above (in Arabic) before the recitation of any revelation in the Quran.  The Muslims are encouraged to recite the above (in Arabic) before the beginning of anything they say or do. The above is stating two other names or attributes of God (Allah).  Allah has 99 names which describe His attributes.

 “The Most Gracious” (Ar-Rahman) denotes the type of tenderness which stimulates in one the urge to show kindness to others. Its connotation is wide enough to cover the qualities of love, compassion, benevolence and generosity. Ar-Rahman means the Being overflowing with the quality of mercy and always ready to pour it out on His creation. “The Dispenser of Grace” (Ar-Rahim) touches upon grace again.  God’s grace is the grace which is ever watchful over His creatures, protecting them, preserving them, guiding them, and leading them to clearer light and higher life.

Dispenser is one who distributes. “The Most Gracious” is having that quality of grace.  “The Dispenser of Grace” is distributing, giving or extending that quality of grace. Looking at “In the name of God, the most gracious, the dispenser of grace” linguistically, one can see a /g/ alliteration in God, gracious, grace which binds the concepts of the attributes and description of God.

“The” (definite article) is repeated three times, IN THE NAME OF GOD, THE MOST GRACIOUS, THE DISPENSER OF GRACE. All the words appear in capital letters and these words are repeated before each surah which defines its importance. Between the above and the first verse is a large line gap.  The first few words of the first verse are also capitalized as if to indicate a new section.

IN THE NAME OF GOD, THE MOST GRACIOUS, THE DISPENSER OF GRACE: 

(1)      ALL THAT IS in the heavens and all that is on earth extols God’s limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!

Analysis: “All that is in the heavens and all that is on earth ……”. There is repetition and parallelism in this (partial) sentence.  The two clauses are joined by the junction “and”.  “All that is” is repeated.  “…. In the heavens” and “… on earth” are viewed as equivalent in some way.  They are both God’s creations.  They can also be viewed as opposites in that “in the heavens” is what one will see after death and “on earth” is what one is seeing now while living.  “On” and “in” are the prepositions used in “in the heavens” and “on earth”.  A definite article “the” is used in “the heavens” to mean Paradise. As one goes on further to complete this first sentence of the surah: “All that is in the heavens and all that is on earth extols God’s limitless glory…”.  There is /g/ alliteration in “God’s glory” which binds the concept of the whole verse in that everything “in the heavens” and “on earth” is due to God’s glory.  “Limitless” further describes unending in time and God’s everlasting existence.

(1)     ALL THAT IS in the heavens and all that is on earth extols God’s limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!

Analysis: “For” (conjunction) provides a cohesive link between the two clauses.  “He” (pronoun) is used to refer to God in “for He alone …..”  There is internal rhyme in “almighty” and “truly”.  This whole verse is in the present tense but the present tense of this verse is universal and timeless. There is an extra space in between the last line of the first verse and the first line of the second verse as if to indicate a different section.  The first two words of the second verse are capitalized.

(2)          O YOU who have attained to faith !  Why do you say one thing and do another? (3)  Most loathsome is it in the sight of God that you say what you do not do!

Analysis: The second verse addresses the believers who claim that they are willing to live up to anything for the sake of Islam and yet they fall short of this determination. In another broad sense, verse two is addressing all those who claim that they are willing to live up to anything that God declares to be desirable and then fall short of this determination. The third verse is a reminder that God is watching and how He dislikes those who do not perform corresponding to their assertions of faith. The pronoun “you” is repeated four times to refer to the believers in verses two and three. The verbs “say” is repeated twice and “do” is repeated four times.  Wh-words appear-who, why, what-three times.

(4)   Verily,  God  loves [only] those  who  fight in His cause in [solid] ranks, as though they were a building firm and compact.

Analysis: After pointing out in the third verse who God loathes, the fourth verse talks about who God loves.  This verse stresses on the importance of practising what one preaches or “to say and do the same thing” and not as the second verse puts it – “say one thing and do another”. The fourth verse describes the unity of deeds and assertions of faith as “solid ranks” and describing it further, as “a building firm and compact” as if to denote an altitude of strength. Two words in this verse appear in parentheses – [only] and [solid]. Both these words have the function of explaining the word after it more explicitly.

“[only] those”

“[solid] ranks”

Analysis: The word [only] explains that God loves only those and not others. The word [solid] explains the quality of strength that the ranks hold. In this verse, the conjunction “as though” is used.  The tense of this verse is the present tense which is timeless and universal. This verse is saying that God loves those who are in unison with their deeds corresponding to their assertions of faith.

(5)   Now when Moses spoke to his people, [it was this same truth that he had in mind:] “O my people! Why do you cause me grief, the while you know that I am an apostle of God sent unto you?”     

Analysis: The fifth verse of this surah carries two paragraphs. The first paragraph of this verse further illustrates the moral necessity in the reference to Prophet Moses.  The children of Israel caused Prophet Moses grief when their actions are contrary to their assertions of faith. The words, [it was this same truth that he had in mind] provides coherence in that it helps to link and explain this fifth verse in relation to the previous verses. The conjunction “while” is used.  However, there is a linguistic deviation when “the” definite article appears before “while” – “the while…”.  “The” does not normally appear before a conjunction. This verse relates about Prophet Moses in the form of speech.  Prophet Moses asked his people a question. The first paragraph of this verse is in the past tense. The question is put across to the children of Israel by Prophet Moses in other words, “By admitting that I speak in the name of God, you (the children of Israel) must not act contrary to this assertion.”

 And so, when they swerved from the right way, God let their hearts swerve from the truth: for God does not bestow His guidance upon iniquitous folk.

Analysis: The above is the second paragraph of the fifth verse.  The conjunction “And” links the first and second paragraphs.  The pronoun “they” refers to the children of Israel from the preceding paragraph.

And so, when they swerved from the right way, God let their hearts swerve from the truth:

Analysis: There is repetition and parallelism in the word “swerve” in these lines.  The one in the first line is in the past tense and in the second line, the word “swerve” is in the present tense. Where meaning is concerned, “swerve” means to turn away. There is parallelism in meanings of “from the right way” and “from the truth”. These are viewed as equivalents.

And so, when they swerved from the right way, God let their hearts swerve from the truth: for God does not bestow His guidance upon iniquitous folk.

Analysis: The conjunction “for” provides a cohesive link to explain why “God let their hearts swerve from the truth.” This second paragraph of verse five tells us that persistence in wrong actions is bound to react on man’s beliefs as well.

(6)    And [this happened, too,] when Jesus the son of Mary, said: “O children of Israel! Behold, I  am  an  apostle of  God unto you, [sent] to confirm the  truth of  whatever  there  still  remains  of  the Torah,  and  to  give  [you]  the  glad tiding  of  an apostle  who  shall  come  after  me,  whose name shall be Ahmad.”

Analysis: Verse six has two paragraphs. The first paragraph contains the speech of Prophet Jesus to the children of Israel. Prophet Jesus’ speech carries several points:

i)    That Prophet Jesus is an apostle of God

ii)   that Prophet Jesus was sent to confirm the truth in the Torah which was revealed to Prophet Moses and

iii)  that another apostle shall come after Prophet Jesus whose name was Ahmad which is another name for Prophet Muhammad.

But when he [whose coming Jesus had foretold] came unto them with all evidence of the truth, they said: “This [alleged message of his] is [nothing but] spellbinding eloquence!”

Analysis: The first paragraph of verse six begins with the conjunction “and”.  The second paragraph of verse six begins with the conjunction “but”. The first paragraph contains the speech of Prophet Jesus and the second paragraph contains the speech of the children of Israel. The children of Israel considered Prophet Jesus’ message as “[nothing but] spellbinding eloquence! They did not believe Prophet Jesus. The tense of these paragraphs is the future tense because this message is a message that Prophet Jesus had predicted and foretold to the children of Israel.

(7)    And who could be more wicked than one who invents [such]a lie about [a message from] God, seeing that he is [but] being called to self-surrender unto Him?

Analysis: Verse seven begins with the conjunction “and”. This verse seven comments on what the children of Israel said about God’s message through Prophet Jesus. It describes the children of Israel to be wicked.

But God does not bestow His guidance upon evil-doing folk. (8) They aim to extinguish God’s light with their utterances: but God has willed to spread His light in all its fullness, however hateful this may be to all who deny the truth.

Analysis: The last sentence of verse seven appears in the next paragraph beginning with the conjunction “but”.  This line is a repetition of the last line of verse five.

For God does not bestow His guidance upon iniquitous folk.

Analysis: The above is the last line of verse five.  The conjunction “for” is used here whereas the conjunction “but” is used in the last line of verse seven. Different expressions are used to describe the children of Israel.  “Evil-doing folk” and “iniquitous folk” – both these expressions are synonyms. They describe the disbelieving children of Israel. “With their utterances” means “with their mouths”, that is, by describing God’s message as “nothing but spellbinding eloquence”, on the part about the prediction of the coming of Prophet Muhammad. Verse eight begins as the second sentence in the paragraph.

(8)    They aim to extinguish God’s light with their utterances:

Analysis: “They” refers to the evil-doing folk. “Extinguish” usually refers to putting out a big fire. Here, it describes putting out or diminishing God’s light – intense light.  However, this intense light is not like the fire that destroys instead it is a light that helps one to see the right way.  The children of Israel plan to extinguish God’s light with their utterances of disbelief towards God’s messages.

(8)   They aim to extinguish God’s light with their utterances: but God has willed to spread His light in all its fullness, however hateful this may be to all who deny the truth.

Analysis: Verse eight contains two clauses.  “But” conjunction cohesively links the first and second clauses of verse eight. Another conjunction “however” is used in the second clause of verse eight to provide further cohesive treatment.  The second clause of verse eight is a relief for all believers that their (children of Israel) false utterances are to no avail. God’s light continues to shine as bright as ever. The tense of verse eight is  the timeless and universal present tense. It is such that non-believers will not prevail in their disbelief.

(9)   He it is who has sent forth His Apostle with [the task of]  spreading guidance and the religion of truth, to the end that He make it prevail over all [false] religion, however hateful this may be to those who ascribe divinity to aught but God.

Analysis: There is deviation via inversion in the first few words of verse nine.  “He it is” is normally written as “It is he”. The word [false] clarifies that the only religion in the sight of God is man’s self-surrender unto Him. There is parallelism and repetition in “spread His light” in verse eight and “spreading guidance”. The word “spread” is repeated but in different forms-“spread” and “spreading”.  “His light” and “guidance” are to be viewed the same way with the same meaning. In verse eight, “however hateful this may be to all who deny the truth” and in verse nine, “however hateful this may be to those who ascribe divinity to aught but God.”  There is parallelism and repetition here as well. The words “however hateful this may be to” are repeated and the words that come after these words in verses eight and nine are to be viewed as parallel in meaning – “all who deny the truth” in verse eight and “those who ascribe divinity to aught but God” in verse nine. The tense is the timeless and universal present tense in verse nine.

(10)   O YOU who have attained to faith ! Shall I point out to you a bargain that will save you from grievous suffering [in this world and in the life to come]?

Analysis: Verse ten marks a new section. The first few letters of verse ten are capitalized. “O YOU who have attained to faith!” addresses the believers.  The same way of address is a repetition in verse two.  Verse ten carries and tells one of a bargain and what one must do for everlasting happiness and to save oneself from any kind of suffering.

(11)   You are to believe in God and His Apostle, and to strive hard in God’s cause with your possessions and your lives: this is for your own good – if you but knew it!

Analysis: Verse eleven tells one several things one must do to save oneself from grievous suffering:

i)        to believe in God and His Apostle,

ii)      to strive hard in God’s cause with one’s possessions and one’s life.

The tense in verses ten and eleven is the present tense which is timeless and universal. The bargain mentioned in verse ten is a metaphor. God has bought from the believers their lives and possessions promising them paradise in return.

(12)   [If you do so,] He will forgive you for your sins, and [in the life to come] will admit you into gardens through which running waters flow, and into goodly mansions in [those] gardens of perpetual bliss: that [will be] the triumph supreme!

Analysis: The conjunction “If” cohesively links what was told in verse eleven to the reward one gets after death if one does what is stated in verse twelve. Verse twelve gives one a picture of Paradise. The tense of verse twelve is the future tense. Paradise is described in verse twelve as a promise of spiritual victory of the Quranic message.

(13)  And [withal, He will grant you] yet another thing that you dearly love: succour from God [in this world], and a victory soon to come: and [therefore, O Prophet,] give thou a glad tiding to all who believe.

Analysis: The conjunction “and” links verse twelve to verse thirteen. Verse thirteen tells one of another thing one can get if one does what is stated in verse eleven, that is, one can get help and relief (succour) from God in time of need in this life. The tense of verse thirteen is in the present tense which is timeless and universal.

(14)       O YOU who have attained to faith!  Be helpers [in the cause of God – even as Jesus, the son of Mary, said unto the white-garbed ones, “Who will be my helpers in God’s cause? – whereupon the white-garbed [disciples] replied, “We  shall be [thy] helpers [in the cause] of God!”

Analysis: Verse fourteen marks a new section and the first few letters are capitalized. It carries two paragraphs and this verse is the last verse in this surah. “O YOU who have attained to faith!” is an address to the believers which is repeated for the third time in this surah.  The first and second times were in verses two and ten which also marked new sections. This verse contains the speeches of Prophet Jesus and his disciples (also called the white-garbed ones). The last line of verse thirteen uses “thou” to address Prophet Jesus – God is addressing Prophet Jesus.  In verse fourteen, the disciples use “thy” to address Prophet Jesus.

And so [it happened that] some of the children of Israel came to believe [in the apostleship of Jesus], whereas others denied the truth.  But [now] we have given strength against their foes unto those who have [truly] attained to faith: and they have become the ones that shall prevail.

Analysis: The conjunction “And” links the first and second paragraphs of verse fourteen. The second paragraph tells one of Prophet Jesus’ semi success in convincing the children of Israel – some believed and others denied the truth. “But” conjunction helps to hold the paragraph together cohesively when “[now]” it is clear that Prophet Jesus was telling the truth, and those who did believe Prophet Jesus are the ones that shall prevail. The tenses of verse fourteen are:

  1. i)        Past tense when recalling about Prophet Jesus. The children of Israel had   

      disbelieved him in the prediction of the coming of Prophet Muhammad.

ii)      “But [now] we have …….” marks the present tense and

iii)    “they have become the ones that shall prevail”  marks the future tense.

ii) and iii) tell that all who truly believe in Prophet Jesus as God’s Apostle and thus, as a Prophet who came before Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad’s  message confirms and expands the true message of Prophet Jesus.

CONCLUSION 

For surah As-Saff taken from the translated version by Muhammad Asad, the distinctive features that were discerned about this particular surah is that this surah is divided into four sections. The beginning of each section is characterized by the capitalizing of the first few letters or words of the verse and also the line gap between the last line of a verse of a section and the first line of a new section is larger.  For example, verse ten marks the beginning of a new section.  The first few letters of this verse are capitalized and the line gap between the last line of verse nine and the first line of verse ten is larger.

(9)   He it is who has sent forth His Apostle with [the task of] spreading guidance and the religion of truth, to the end that He make it prevail over all [false] religion, however hateful this may be to those who ascribe divinity to aught but God.

 

(10)           O YOU who have attained to faith! Shall I point out to you a bargain that will save you from grievous suffering [in this world and in the life to come]?

The four sections found in this surah are:

i)       Verse one

ii)     Verses two to nine

iii)   Verses ten to thirteen

iv)   Verse fourteen

Each of the four sections of this surah was examined closely to detect the linguistic features that were present through a stylistic analysis.  A variety of different linguistic features were found. Some examples of linguistic features found in this surah are as follows:

(1)     ALL THAT IS in the heavens and all that is on earth extols God’s limitless glory: ……….

In verse one, there is repetition and parallelism. The two clauses are joined  by the conjunction “and” “All that is” is repeated.“… In the heavens” and “…. On earth” are viewed as equivalents in some way. They are both God’s creations.

In verse five, there is a linguistic deviation when “the” definite article appears before “while” –“the while……”. “The” does not normally appear before a conjunction. For example, in verse five,

(5)   Now when Moses spoke to his people, [it was this same truth that he had in mind:] “O my people! Why do you cause me grief, the while you know that I am an apostle of God sent unto you?”

And so, when they swerved from the right  way,

God let their hearts swerve from the truth: for God does not bestow His guidance upon iniquitous folk.

Different expressions are used to describe the disbelieving children of Israel. “Evil-doing folk” and “iniquitous folk” – both these expressions are synonymous. For example, in verse five and seven,

(5)   Now when Moses spoke to his people, [it was this same truth that he had in mind:] “O my people! Why do you cause me grief, the while you know that I am an apostle of God sent unto you?”

And so, when they swerved from the right way, God let their hearts swerve from the truth: for God does not bestow His guidance upon iniquitous folk.

(7)   And who could be more wicked than one who invents [such] a lie about [a message from] God, seeing that he is [but] being called to self-surrender unto Him? But God does not bestow His guidance upon evil-doing folk.

(9)  He it is who has sent forth His Apostle with [the task of] spreading guidance and the religion of truth, …….

  1. In verse nine, there is deviation via inversion. “He it is” – the first few words of verse nine – is normally written as “It is he”. In verse ten, the same way  of addressing the believers as in verse two is repeated.

(10)   O YOU who have attained to faith! ……..

In verse fourteen, the same way of addressing the believers as in verses two and ten is repeated for the third time.

The conjunction, “and”, links the first and second paragraphs of verse fourteen. The conjunction, “but”, helps to hold the second paragraph together cohesively when “[now]” it is clear that Prophet Jesus was telling the truth and those who did believe Prophet Jesus are the ones that prevailed. For example, in verse fourteen,

(14)   O YOU who have attained to faith! Be helpers [in the cause of God – even as Jesus, the son of Mary, said unto the white-garbed ones, “Who will be my helpers in God’s cause?” – whereupon the white-garbed [disciples] replied, “We shall be [thy] helpers [in the cause] of God!”

         And so [it happened that] some of the children of Israel came to believe [in the apostleship of Jesus], whereas others denied the truth.  But [now] We have given strength against their foes unto those who have [truly] attained to faith: and they have become the ones that shall prevail.

For the sixty-first surah, As-Saff, taken from the translated version by Muhammad Asad, it is noticeable in arrangement that the whole surah is broken into four sections or parts: a)verse1, b)verses 2-9, c) verses 10-13 and d)verse 14. Each part was analysed separately.

With regard to language and style variation of the first section (verse 1), the language is Modern English, adult, religious-class, educated language. The medium is written language. The tenor is formal. The domain is language of instruction telling readers to believe in God and His existence. For example, in verse one,

(1)     ALL THAT IS in the heavens and all that is on earth extols God’s limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!

 With regard to language and style variation of the second section (verses2-9), the language is Modern English, adult, religious-class, educated language. The medium is written language but there is a representation of spoken language in the speeches between Prophet Moses and the children of Israel and also the speeches of Prophet Jesus and the children of Israel. For example in verse five,

(5)   Now when Moses spoke to his people, [it was this same truth that he had in mind:] “O my people! Why do you cause me grief, the while you know that I am an apostle of God sent unto you?”

 The tenor is informal and impolite in the speech of the children of Israel showing disbelief in the message brought by Prophet Jesus. For example in verse six,

…..But when he [whose coming Jesus had foretold] came unto them with all evidence of the truth, they said: “This [alleged message of his] is [nothing but] spellbinding eloquence!”

 The domain is the language of instruction telling readers to believe in God and His Messengers. For example in verses seven and eight,

…..But God does not bestow His guidance upon evil-doing folk. (8) They aim to extinguish God’s light with their utterances: but God has willed to spread His light in all its fullness, however hateful this may be to all who deny the truth.

With  regard to  language and style  variation  of the  third  section  (verses 10-13), the language is Modern English, adult, religious-class, educated language. The medium is written language but suggests a closer relationship when these verses address the readers with “you”. For example, in verse thirteen,

(13)  And [withal, He will grant you] yet another thing that you dearly love: succour from God…..

Verse thirteen suggests that God knows what I dearly love, that is, succour from Him. The Quranic message will spread among people who had not previously understood it which leads to the promise of victory in the conquest of the Muslims against the disbelievers. The tenor is formal. The domain is the language of instruction teaching the readers what to do to go to Paradise. For example, in verse eleven:

(11)  You are to believe in God and His Apostle, and to strive hard in God’s cause with your possessions  and your lives: this is for your own good- if you but knew it!

There is accessibility in the language used when describing Paradise in verse twelve- He will admit you into gardens through which running waters flow, and into goodly mansions in those gardens of perpetual bliss. The words used-running waters, mansions ,gardens are all familiar to readers to be able to imagine. For example, in verse twelve,

(12)  [If you do so,] He will forgive you your sin and [in the life to come] will admit you into gardens through which running waters flow, and into goodly mansions in [those] gardens of perpetual bliss: that [will be] the triumph supreme!

With regard to language and style variation of the last section (verse 14), the language is Modern English, adult, religious-class, educated language. The medium is written language but contains the speeches of Prophet Jesus and his disciples. His disciples used “thy” instead of “your” in their speech in verse fourteen-“We shall be [thy] helpers [in the cause] of God!”-which gives a Classical English effect. In Classical English, “thy” can be used to address someone who is respected and loved dearly. The believers loved and respected Prophet Jesus dearly. The tenor is formal. The domain is the language of instruction telling readers to believe in God and His Messengers. For example in verse fourteen,

…….And so [it happened that] some of the children of Israel came to believe [in the apostleship of Jesus], whereas others denied the truth.  But [now] We have given strength against their foes unto those who have [truly] attained to faith: and they have become the ones that shall prevail.

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