AMERICAN MINUTE A history of Mexico's instability Bill Federer offers a brief summary of coups, revolutions and wars


Mexican Revolution

Cortes conquered the Aztecs in 1521. For the next 300 years, New Spain, which included Latin America and parts of North and South America, was ruled by Catholic Spain .

In 1808, Napoleon, a secular leader, invaded Catholic Spain and placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne of Spain. Many Catholics in New Spain have questioned their allegiance to this secular French king on the throne of Spain.

Simon Bolivar led a revolution against Spain, which led to the independence of:

  • Venezuela
  • Colombia (including Panama)
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
  • Bolivia
  • northern Peru
  • west of Guyana
  • northwestern Brazil
  • In Mexico, in 1810, a priest, Miguel Hidalgo, gave a speech entitled "The cry of Dolores" to protest against the detention by Napoleon of the King of Spain, Fernando VII, captive. Hidalgo placed on a banner the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe and gathered 90,000 poor peasants to revolt against the Spanish viceroy.

    Hidalgo's troops inscribed slogans on their flags: "Long live religion! Long live our most holy mother of Guadalupe! Long live America and died to bad government!

    Hidalgo was captured and executed. He is considered the father of the Mexican nation, his movement having begun to lead to the independence of Mexico.

    From 1821 to 1857, fifty different governments ruled Mexico. The revolts and revolutions in Mexico generally began with a class war, in which the poor were organized to overthrow the rich, but the revolutionary leaders themselves seized power and became dictators.

    Agustín de Iturbide first defeated Spain against Hidalgo, before moving to the fight against Spain. Iturbide became Emperor of Mexico and placed the crown on his head in 1822. Antonio López of Santa Anna, Vicente Guerrero and others conspired against him and he fled to Britain. On his return, Iturbide was executed.

    Mexico was then ruled by a supreme executive power, followed in 1824 by its first president, Guadalupe Victoria, who was the only president to have completed his full term in over 30 years of an independent Mexico. Manuel Gómez Pedraza won the second election, but Vicente Guerrero and Antonio López of Santa Anna staged a coup by bombing the palace.

    Vicente Guerrero became president in 1829, but was deposed and executed by his vice-president Bustamante. Vice President Bustamante has been deposed twice and exiled to Europe.

    Between 1833 and 1855, the Mexican presidency changed hands at least 36 times, Antonio López de Santa Anna having ruled eleven.

    Antonio López de Santa Anna, pretending to be Napoleon, set aside the Constitution of Mexico in 1835, dissolved Congress and declared himself dictator. Santa Anna had previously told the American minister in Mexico, Joel R. Poinsett, 1824: "I raised my cap for freedom with great eagerness … but I quickly found the madness. In one hundred years, my people will not be fit for freedom. They do not know what it is, as little enlightened as they are. … Despotism is the appropriate government for them. "

    After Mexico finally gained independence from Spain on September 27, 1821, other regions of Latin America declared themselves independent of Spain and Mexico, becoming nations. following:

  • Guatemala
  • El Salvador
  • Costa Rica
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • The dictator Santa Anna wanted to crush similar sentiments in Texas. The main events include:

  • Battle of Velasco, June 26, 1832
  • Battle of Gonzales, October 2, 1835
  • Battle of Goliad, October 9, 1835
  • Battle of Concepcion, October 28, 1835
  • The siege of Bezar ends on December 11, 1835
  • Battle of Alamo, February 23-March. 6, 1836
  • Declaration of Independence of Texas, March 2, 1836
  • Massacre of Goliad, March 27, 1836
  • Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836
  • In 1845, Texas became the 28th US state.

    The US-Mexico War began on April 25, 1846 and ended on February 2, 1848 with the Treaty of Guadalupe (see below).

    Santa Anna consolidated his power to maintain his power, but this led to a resistance led by Benito Juarez. In 1853, Benito Juarez was exiled to New Orleans and worked in a cigar factory. In 1854, Benito Juarez plotted Ayutla's revolution to oust Santa Anna from the dictator, forcing him to resign in 1855. This resulted in a power vacuum and the church found himself caught in the middle.

    From 1521, the Church in Mexico acted as a consciousness that pushed the elite to care for the poor. The Church, however, was not actively trying to change the political structure and, as a result, political revolutionaries somehow contributed to perpetuating the status quo of inequality. In 1856, a reform war broke out against the Church, putting an end to important limitations.

    After political maneuvering, Benito Juarez became president in 1858. As a free mason, Benito Juarez founded the Rito Nacional Mexicano lodge. Benito Juarez ended repayment by Mexico of loans borrowed from Spain, the United Kingdom and France, prompting European intervention. In 1861, a delegation of Mexican leaders went to Europe and asked Maximillian I, the younger brother of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Joseph I, to go to Mexico City to restore order.

    Meanwhile, in order to obtain repayment of their debts, the French forces of Napoleon III invaded Mexico, suffering a slight unexpected setback at the Battle of Puebla on May 5 – Cinco de Mayo – 1862. The French became seized and took control of Mexico. Maximillian I agreed to govern Mexico. He arrived with the Pope's blessing in 1864 and was greeted with an enthusiastic welcome. Maximillian has made many civil reforms to help the poor.

    The United States government, however, did not want any European power in the Western Hemisphere. This was called the Monroe Doctrine. After the end of the American Civil War, the United States urged Napoleon III to abandon his support for Maximillian, which he did by withdrawing all French troops from Mexico. The United States then began secretly supplying firearms as part of a "Fast and Furious" covert operation to arm Mexican gangs to incite domestic violence and assault. ;insurrection.

    Maximilian was captured and, despite the demands of European leaders, Benito Juárez had him shot on June 19, 1867. Following the example of former Mexican leaders, Benito Juarez continued to consolidate power to secure his reelection. This left a revolt led by Porfirio Diaz in 1871. Juarez ended the revolt but died of a heart attack and was replaced by Lerdo de Tejada.

    Lerdo de Tejada was overthrown by Porfirio Diaz. Porfirio Diaz was president of most of 1876 to 1911. Following the example of previous Mexican leaders, Porfirio Diaz continued to consolidate his power to ensure his reelection. This caused a revolt led by Francisco Madero in 1911.

    During the next decade of fighting, millions of people died while the secular Mexican government was trying to crush the church and silence political dissent. Francisco Madero was assassinated by a coup in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta, which sparked a civil war. Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata and Álvaro Obregón forced Victoriano Huerta to resign.

    In 1914, Hollywood sent a crew filming Pancho Villa while he was fighting Durango in Mexico City. Antonio Banderas was portrayed as Pancho Villa in the 2003 film "And Featuring Pancho Villa Like Himself". Marlon Brando played Emiliano Zapata in the movie "Viva Zapata!" From 1952, forcing Victoriano Huerta to resign.

    President Woodrow Wilson first supported Villa Pancho, then adopted Venustiano Carranza, because Wilson wanted Mexican oil to be used to fight Germany during the First World War. General Pershing reportedly left wagons of arms and ammunition along the border. The guards turned away while the Carranza fighters emptied them.

    Venustiano Carranza took control but was quickly assassinated in 1920. Adolfo de la Huerta succeeded him, in the place of the revolutionary Álvaro Obregón. Obregón reportedly ordered the death of all rebel officers, including Pancho Villa. Adolfo de la Huerta started a revolt against Álvaro Obregón, but it was crushed.

    In 1924 the aggressive anti-Christian Freemason Plutarco Elías Calles succeeded Obregón. He closed and confiscated churches, schools, convents, hospitals, seminaries, missions and monasteries. Calles imposed radically atheistic "Calles Laws" that prohibited the wearing of religious clothing outside of a church, a five-year sentence of imprisonment against pastors who criticized the government and limited the number of clergy per state.

    As described in the film "For greater glory: Viva Crista Rey" (2012), priests, ministers and lay faithful were harassed, arrested and even murdered. Catholic women and girls were assaulted and raped. This culminated in the Cristero War, 1926-29, where more than 90,000 were killed. Obregón was again elected in 1928 but was quickly assassinated. Calles took over power by being nicknamed "Grand Turk" and "Jefe Máximo" (political leader). Promoting revolutionary socialism, Calles made sure that Mexico hosted the first embassy of the Soviet Union in one country. Calles launched the PNR party of Mexico, predecessor of the PRI party.

    President Portes Gil agreed not to apply the "Calles Laws" but left them in the books. In 1936, President Lázaro Cárdenas deported Calles and repealed the "Calles laws", thus restoring a semblance of freedom of religion.

    On December 6, 1852, President Millard Fillmore explained why revolutions in other countries had different results from those of the American Revolution: "Our own free institutions are not the product of our revolution. They existed before. They were implanted in the free charters of self-government under which the English colonies developed, and our revolution liberated us only from the domination of a foreign power whose government was in contradiction with these institutions. … other countries have not followed such self-government training and all efforts to set it up by bloody revolutions have been and should otherwise continue to be a failure. … Liberty not regulated by law degenerates into anarchy, which quickly becomes the most horrible of all despotisms. … We owe these blessings, under the sky, to the happy constitution and the government that were bequeathed to us by our fathers and that it is our sacred duty to transmit in all their integrity to our children. "

    Californian Ronald Reagan said about America in 1961: "In our country, was the greatest revolution in world history. The only true revolution. Each revolution has simply exchanged one set of leaders for another.

    This subject is treated in detail in the book "Who is the king in America? – And who are the king's advisors ?: Overview of 6,000 years of history and why America is unique. "

    But back to 1848 …

    At the end of the US-Mexico War, on February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo was signed on the altar of the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, in Villa Hidalgo, in the present city from Mexico. For $ 15 million, the same amount paid to France for the purchase of Louisiana, the United States bought Mexico 525,000 square miles – the third largest land purchase in history.

    The largest land purchase was Louisiana's purchase of 828,000 square miles of France and the second largest land purchase was the 586,412 square miles of Alaska in Russia after the loss of the Crimean war for the benefit of Britain.

    The lands acquired by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo have become the American states of:

    and parts of:

  • Arizona
  • Texas
  • Kansas
  • Oklahoma
  • New Mexico
  • Colorado
  • Wyoming
  • The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo began as follows: "In the name of Almighty God – the United States and the United States of Mexico, animated by the sincere desire to put an end to the calamities of war … have, under the protection of Almighty God, Author of Peace, agreed, signed and signed the following peace treaty. … "

    Unlike the many secular governments of Mexico, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo guaranteed: "If … God forbid, the war should unfortunately break out … they … solemnly … commit the following rules. … All churches, hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries and other institutions for charitable and beneficent purposes shall be respected, and all persons connected with them shall be protected in the exercise of their functions and for the prosecution of their vocation. … Made in Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2 of the year of the Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight. "

    Since the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the health, security and economic status of lands north of the border and lands south of the border have contrasted considerably. This is particularly evident when comparing border towns:

  • San Diego – Tiajuana
  • El Paso – Juarez
  • Laredo – Nuevo Laredo
  • Brownsville – Matamoros
  • McAllen – Reynosa
  • During the same period that Mexico had several dozens of different governments, the United States, with the exception of the Civil War period, had only one. Since both sides of the border have a climate, geography, plants and, in many cases, a similar cultural-racial composition, the reasons for this disparity must be deeper.

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    The Mexican population has also been subject to foreign entanglements. The GATT and NAFTA treaties led to a devaluation of the Mexican currency, which favored multinational corporations and globalist financial interests to the detriment of the bankruptcy of small Mexican farmers and the displacement of rural populations.

    On June 27, 2012, United States Attorney General Eric Holder was convicted of contempt of Congress for providing arms to Mexican drug gangs as part of a program called "Fast and Furious ". It was later discovered that some of these weapons were used to kill Americans. The incumbent subsequently resigned.

    The Muslim infiltration of these drug gangs is causing more and more concern. More and more people coming to America from the southern border are MNOs (other than Mexicans). Many come from Islamic countries such as:

  • afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Egypt
  • Pakistan
  • Yemen
  • Qatar
  • Algeria
  • Somalia
  • Malaysia
  • Libya
  • Eritrea
  • Indonesia
  • Lebanon
  • Political differences north and south of the border include the US view of the government's goal. The Declaration of Independence explained that the government should not dominate, but guarantee to everyone the rights given them by the Creator: "All men are created equal, they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights. … That to guarantee these rights, governments are instituted among men. "

    The impartial system of the United States of America's rule of law was designed to ensure that it would never reign over the whims and whims of a dictator.

    President Ronald Reagan, who was California's 33rd governor, said in 1983, "Among the many influences that have shaped the United States of America into a distinct nation and people, none can be considered more fundamental. and durable as the Bible. … The Bible and its teaching helped to establish the founding fathers' deep conviction about the inalienable rights of the individual, rights they found implicit in Bible teachings about the value and dignity inherent in each individual. "

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