AMERICAN MINUTE Requests for reparations are silent on the slave trade of today Bill Federer tells the tragic story of human slavery


There are more slaves today than ever before in the history of mankind, said Benjamin Skinner, a member of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

It is estimated that 27 million people around the world are forced to work, held fraudulently, under the threat of violence, without any remuneration other than their subsistence, forced marriages, sex trafficking and prostitution. Although most of the time illegal, slavery, under its various names, exists today in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Southeast Asia, Romania, Sudan, in Haiti, Brazil, Latin America and even the United States.

The repairs that require the strongest remedy for past slavery are strangely silent with respect to current slavery.

Time magazine reported on January 18, 2010: "Despite more than a dozen international conventions banning slavery over the past 150 years, today there are more slaves than in the history of humanity. "

Slavery has a long and shameful history.

Ancient cultures have enslaved those captured in battle, as in Babylon, Persia, Greece, China, India and Africa. The Israelites were made to be slaves by powerful pharaohs of Egypt for four hundred years.

Julius Caesar conquered Gaul and introduced to Rome so many captured "Slavic" peoples that the term "slave" took on the meaning of permanent servant – "slave". More than half of Rome's population was slaves.

Generational debt, developed by the Roman Emperor Diocletian, is another form of slavery. In the third and fourth centuries, the Roman economy deteriorated so much that people unable to pay their mortgages simply give up their properties, give up their Roman citizenship and go live with the barbarians. To end it, Diocletian legislated that citizens could never flee their debts – binding them and their children to the land forever, creating a feudal system.

This is essentially the case in India, where peasant and peasant families inherited an old debt. The Royal Commission on Agriculture explained that the farmer "is born of a debt, lives on a debt and dies of a debt".

A more recent example of ineluctable debt is that of young Americans trapped in billions of dollars of student debt they can never escape:

  • Time magazine (09/02/12) "Why You Can not Cancel Your Student Loans in Bankruptcy"
  • "No exit: student loans, financial difficulties and the need for policy reform (National Center for Consumer Law, June 2006)
  • "Ripping Off Young Americans: The Inter-College Loan Scandal" (Rolling Stone, 8/15/13): "Congress has almost completely stripped students of their right to repay debt through bankruptcy (surprising, even as players can declare bankruptcy)!) "
  • "Obama Administration Falsely Denies Student Loan Debt Relief" (Huffinton Post, 5/08/2015)
  • "The horrible and terrible legacy of President Obama's student loans" (The Hill, 13/05/16): "His (her) lawyers fight fiercely behind the scenes to prevent student loans from protecting bankruptcy.
  • The chronology of slavery added a new chapter in 711 AD, when the Muslim Moors conquered Spain, then invaded Portugal and France, followed by the coasts of Italy, the Greece and the Mediterranean. More than a million Europeans were taken to Islamic slavery.

    In 1189, Muslims invaded Libson, Portugal, and enslaved 3,000 women and children. In 1191, Muslims attacked Silves, Portugal, and enslaved 3,000.

    According to Imad al-Din, during the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, about 7,000 men and 8,000 women were unable to pay ransom and so they were enslaved. The medieval Catholic religious orders of Trinitarians or Mathurins would collect donations from Muslim slavery people who were ransomed.

    Muslim raiders enslaved about 180 million Africans during its 1400-year expansion. Muslim slave markets existed in:

  • North Africa: Tangier (Morocco), Marrakech (Morocco). Algiers Algeria). Tripoli (Libya), Cairo (Egypt), Aswan (Egypt); Khartoum, Sudan)
  • West Africa: Aoudaghost (Mauritania), Timbuktu (Mali), Gao (Mali), Bilma (Niger), Kano (Nigeria)
  • Swahili Coast: Bagamoyo (Tanzania), Zanzibar (Tanzania), Kilwa (Tanzania), Sofala (Beira, Mozambique), Mombasa (Kenya)
  • Horn of Africa: Assab (Eritrea), Massawa (Eritrea), Nefasit (Eritrea), Tadjoura (Djibouti), Zeila (Somalia), Mogadishu (Somalia), Kismayo (Somalia)
  • Arabian Peninsula: Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Zabīd (Yemen), Muscat (Oman), Aden (Yemen), Socotra (Indian Ocean)
  • Indian Ocean: Debal (Sind, Pakistan), Karachi (Sind, Pakistan), Janjira (India), Surat (India), Mandvi, Kutch (India)
  • There has never been a significant abolitionist movement in Islam because it could be interpreted as an indirect condemnation of Muhammad and well-guided caliphs because they possessed slaves.

    Tragically, Muslim slave markets continue, news reporting shocking details about the Islamic State enslaving captured women, many of whom are Christian or Yezidi. The Clarion project (3/3/16) reported: "ISIS sells Yazidis sex slaves from far away".

    Liberal universities have championed this practice, as reported on February 7, 2017, when Professor Jonathan Brown of Georgetown University, Al-Waleed bin Talal Chair in Islamic Civilization, delivered a conference defending human rights. the man, related to slavery and non-consensual sex (rape). in Islamic sharia.

    Organizations assisting these victims include: The Voice of the Martyrs, Shared Hope, New Friends New Life, International Justice Mission, Wellspring Living, Slavery Footprint, Christian Solidarity International, Agape International Missions, YWAM Center Thailand Tamar and Foundation Persecution Project, which provides compassion, hope and help to rebuild communities through the love of Christ.

    In pre-Columbian America, warring tribes enslaved the captives, sometimes using them in ritual sacrifices and cannibalism. The Inca empire had a mandatory public service system called mita, similar to the Aztec tlacotin.

    When Spain conquered the New World in the early 1500s, the conquistadors removed the leaders of the Indian government and ruled in their place. In the Inca empire, where indigenous people had been trained to obey government orders, they readily obeyed their new Spanish rulers, even though this often meant dying of hard labor, such as in the mines. Potosi money.

    The Spaniards set up a system called encomienda or repartimiento, which was related to a work without freedom of the Corvée de France, a feudal society. Priests like Bartolome de las Casas and the Franciscan Brothers, as well as Papal Bulls, put an end to the slavery of the Amerindians.

    Unfortunately, those who wanted to continue slavery sought to replace the natives freed by African slaves bought in the Muslim slave markets. The first African slaves were brought to North America on a Dutch ship in Virginia in 1619.

    A lesser known chapter of slaves imported to America occurred in the 1600s when King James I, followed by Charles I and Oliver Cromwell, sold more than 500,000 Irish Catholics to slaves in plantations in the Caribbean, Antigua, Montserrat, Jamaica and Barbados. as well as Virginia and New England. In addition, many poor Europeans sold themselves as "contract servants" – a temporary slavery – for seven years, in exchange for transportation to America. From 1714 to 1756, thousands of oppressed Irishmen sold as contract slaves in exchange for their passage, usually in Pennsylvania, in the hope of taking advantage of William Penn's promise of tolerance.

    Historian Will Durant wrote in "The Story of Civilization": "The Irish scene has been one of the most shameful in history.

    The African slave Estevanico accompanied the Spanish Expedition of Narváez in 1527. After the sinking and attacks, he was one of four survivors, led by Cabeza de Vaca, healer of healer-turned explorers, who traveled the American Southwest for eight years.

    Indian tribes would sell the captives of other tribes into slavery. Sacagawea, a Lemhi Shoshone, was captured by the Hidatsa people and sold to Frenchman Toussaint Charbonneau, who accompanied Lewis and Clark in their explorations. York, an African slave of William Clark, was part of the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery.

    Some Native Americans owned African slaves. In 1842, there was a revolt of African slaves in the Cherokee territory.

    After colonial conflicts with American Indians, some were sold as slaves to the West Indies.

    Christian missionaries and movements, especially Quakers, Moravians, and Methodists, were a voice of permanent conscience against slavery.

    Jefferson lobbied for a law ending the importation of slaves into the United States, declaring to Congress on December 2, 1806: "… to remove from US citizens any new involvement in these violations. human rights perpetrated for so long the unaffected inhabitants of Africa, and that morality, reputation and the best interests of our country have long aspired to proscribe. "

    Haiti has had several revolts of slaves against the French government. The fear of spreading the revolt of Haitian slaves was convincing to convince Napoleon to sell the French territory of Louisiana to the United States.

    Tragically, slavery continues, and Reuters published an article on February 7, 2017: "Police in a hotel in Haiti expose child sex trafficking."

    In 1820, an American revenue cutter seized the slave ship Antelope off the coast of Florida with nearly 300 African slaves. Francis Scott Key fought to free the slaves and spent seven years in an expensive legal battle that culminated in the Supreme Court in 1825.

    Henry S. Foote wrote: "Key closed with … an electrifying image of the horrors of the African slave trade."

    When Democrats wanted to extend slavery into this new territory of Louisiana, it resulted in a "bleeding in Kansas." In the United States, slavery ended after the Civil War and the adoption of the 13th Amendment.

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    Slavery began in Cuba earlier and lasted longer than most countries in the Americas. A notorious trade triangle has developed with Havana, Cuba, in its center: African slaves to Caribbean sugar to rum from England.

    An international incident occurred in 1839 when a Portuguese ship from Sierra Leone transferred 53 slaves to the Cuban ship Amistad. On July 1, 1839, African slaves freed themselves from their chains and seized control of the ship, demanding that they be brought back to Africa. The captain mishandled the ship, sailing slowly eastward during the day, but rapidly westward at night, eventually landing on Long Island, New York, where the slaves were arrested. The Amistad case was brought before the Supreme Court.

    Former 74-year-old President John Quincy Adams defended jailed Africans by writing; "By the blessing of God, I will plead the case before the Supreme Court."

    This was featured in Steven Spielberg's 1997 film "Amistad" starring Morgan Freeman, Nigel Hawthorne, Anthony Hopkins, Djimon Hounsou and Matthew McConaughey.

    In his October 1840 diary, John Quincy Adams wrote: "I beg God's mercy to control my temperament, enlighten my soul and give me the floor, so that I can prove myself in every respect at the height of the task. "

    Francis Scott Key gave legal advice to Adams. Adams shook hands with Africans Cinque and Grabeau, saying, "God willing, we will make you free."

    John Quincy Adams, known as Old Man Eloquent, said in court: "As soon as you reach the Declaration of Independence, every man has the right to life and liberty, an inalienable right. I ask nothing more for those unfortunate than this Declaration. "

    Against all odds, John Quincy Adams won the freedom of these Africans.

    President James Buchanan wrote on December 19, 1859: "When a market of African slaves is no longer provided in Cuba … Christianity and civilization can gradually penetrate into the existing gloom."

    In 1868, a farmer of Spanish origin began to revolt in Cuba to demand racial equality, freedom of speech and freedom of association. Spain ended the Cuban revolt during the ten-year war, killing thousands. A royal Spanish decree finally ended slavery in Cuba in 1886.

    In 1895, another rebellion began in Cuba and Spain sent 200,000 soldiers to repress it. Thousands of people have been placed in concentration camps where they have suffered famine, disease and exposure. The Yellow Press journalism excited the American public, who asked President William McKinley to intervene.

    The United States Maine was sent to Havana and on February 15, 1898, it exploded in the harbor under suspicious conditions, at the beginning of the Spanish-American War.

    President McKinley approved the Congress resolution: "While the deplorable conditions that have prevailed for more than three years on the island of Cuba, so close to our own borders, have shocked the moral sense of the American people, Christian civilization, culminating, as they did, in the destruction of an American combat ship, with 266 officers and his crew, during a friendly visit to the port of Havana; and can not be endured anymore. … Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives … that the people of the island of Cuba is and by right should be free. "

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