In the third century, the Roman Empire was invaded by the Goths. At the same time, the Cyprian plague, probably smallpox, killed 5,000 people a day at its height. So many died that the Roman army was reduced to soldiers. Needing more soldiers to fight the Goth invaders and believing that men were fighting better if they were not married, Emperor Claudius II banned traditional marriage in the army .
Emperor Claudius II suppressed the internal rivalries resulting from the earlier assassination of the Emperor Gallienus by asking the Roman Senate to deify the Emperor Gallienus with the other Roman gods. Citizens were forced to worship the Roman gods by placing a pinch of incense on the fire in front of their statues. Those who refused to worship the Roman gods were considered "politically incorrect" or "unpatriotic" enemies of the state and were killed.
The persecution of Emperor Decian specifically targeted Christians with legislation, forcing them to deny their conscience or to die.
During the first three centuries of Christianity, there were ten major persecutions in which the government threw the Christians to the lions, boiled them alive, their tongues were sliced and worse. Tragically, such stories of persecution of Christians have endured over the centuries and even atrocities committed today in communist and fundamentalist Islamist countries. The persecutions included the confiscation and destruction of Christian writings, writings and historical documents.
As many documents have been destroyed, the details of Valentine's life are meager.
What we know little was written first in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum, D. 460-544. Valentine's Day is also mentioned in the Legenda Sanctorum of Jacobus of Voragine in 1260 and in the Chronicle of Nuremberg, 1493.
Even though several people bore this name, it seems that Valentine's Day is a priest in Rome, a bishop in Terni, in central Italy. He risked the wrath of the emperor by getting up for the traditional wedding and secretly marrying soldiers with their young brides.
When Emperor Claudius asked Christians to deny their conscience and worship pagan idols, St. Valentine refused. Valentine was arrested, dragged before the prefect of Rome and sentenced to death. While waiting for his execution, his jailer, Asterius, asked Valentine to pray for his blind daughter. When she miraculously found the sight, the jailer converted and was baptized, with many others.
Just before his execution, Valentine wrote a note to the jailer's daughter, signing "your Valentine's Day".
Valentine's Day was hit with clubs and pebbles. When that failed, he was beheaded at Flaminian's gate on 14 February 269 AD In 496 AD, Pope Gelasius designated February 14 as "Valentine's Day".
In the High Middle Ages, Geoffrey Chaucer, nicknamed the father of English literature, wrote "Parliament of Crowds" (circa 1393) that birds chose their mates in mid-February: "As it was Valentine's Day , when every bird kind that men can imagine comes to this place to choose his companion. "
About 90% of the bird species are monogamous. Many life partners, such as swans, Canada geese, crows, cranes, blue jays, greedy owls, red-tailed hawks, woodpeckers, ospreys, raptors, penquins and bald eagles, after elaborate courses, according to their species, these birds stay together until the death of a partner. Birds that mate all their lives have offspring that require further care and instruction from parents. They are able to mate earlier in the season, giving their youngsters more time to develop before the fall and winter seasons long migrations or harsh winter conditions.
After Chaucer, literature began to associate Valentine's Day with courtly love. This ended up becoming the English tradition of the 18th century to present flowers, to offer confectionery and to send greeting cards for Valentine's Day.
People often sign Valentine's Day cards with X and O. The Greek name for Christ, Χριστό, begins with the letter "X" which is called "Chi" in Greek. "X" has become a common abbreviation for the name Christ. That is why Christ-mas is abbreviated as X-mas.
In medieval times, the "X" was called the cross of Christ, or "cross-cross". The "row of crosses" was the way in which colonial schoolchildren learned the alphabet, where they started with the X and said "May Christ's Cross, grant me speed (success)" and recite then the 26 letters. He reminded students that "the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom":
Mortals need not know
More than content of the old Chris'cross row.
The Cross of Christ was a form of written oath. Similar to the old practice of swearing on a Bible saying, "Help me, God", then kissing the Bible, people would sign a document with or beside the Cross of Christ to swear to God that they would respect the agreement and then embrace it. show sincerity.
This practice came to us in the form of "sign X" or saying "I swear, cross my heart". This is the origin of the signature of a Valentine's Day card with an "X" to express a promise of faithfulness to God. and an "O" to seal the promise with a kiss of sincerity.
John 15:13 "No man has more love than one who remains to give his life for his friends."
The story is closely related to Valentine's references:
Since the Roman persecutions, Christianity has become the most persecuted religion in the world, with more than 300 martyrs every day, or one every five minutes, mainly in Muslim and communist countries.
The Easton Bible Dictionary explains that the Greek word "martyr" is translated into English as "witness".
Acts 1: 8 noted the words of Jesus to his disciples, "But you will receive power after the Holy Spirit has come upon you; you will be witnesses to me both in Jerusalem and throughout Judea and Samaria. in the extreme part of the earth. "
Valentine's will to be a martyr of Christ and his heroic and loving example always inspire believers to follow the scripture: "Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, make love. well to those who hate you and pray for those who use you in spite of you. and persecute you; That you may be the children of your Father who is in heaven. "
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